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DUGDALE, Bridget Ann (I70395)
 
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Fredeburga de Vienne (I4872)
 
3



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Guigues II, Sire de Vion (I4874)
 
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Artaud II, de Forez, Comte de Lyon et de Forez (I8079)
 
5



Possibly died before 1685, or did the two François have different firs t and second name combinations? 
FISET, François (I75087)
 
6



The source states William was the son of Governor Thomas Mann Randolph , but that appears to not be the case. This was an easy error to mak e as there were so many generations of Thomas Mann Randolphs. His fath er was the Thomas Mann Randolph who married Anne Cary. 
RANDOLPH, William (I29192)
 
7



Twin. 
SAMSON, Jeanne (I54614)
 
8


-- MERGED NOTE ------------

LOUIS de Mousson ([1077/79]-murdered 1102).  "Filia Wilelmi comitis de Burgundia Hermentrudis et filii sui Fridericus, Raginaudus, Theodericus" founded the Cluniac abbey of Froidefontaine by charter dated 8 Mar 1105 in which she names "suis antecessoribus…filiis autem Theoderici atque sue uxoris Hermentrudis, Lodewico, Wilelmo, Hugone"[86].  It seems unlikely that Louis de Mousson could have been born much later than [1077/79] bearing in mind his active participation in the First Crusade.  Albert of Aix names "…Luodewicus de Monzunz…filius comitis Tirrici de Muntbiliarht…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[87].  William of Tyre names "Ludovicus de Moncons" among those present at the capture of Antioch in 1098[88].  Albert of Aix records that "comes de Oringis Reinboldus, Ludowicus de Monzuns, Lambertus filius Cononis de Monte Acuto" commanded one of the corps of men at the capture of Antioch in Jun 1098[89].  He returned to Altkirch before 1102, when he was killed by some of his own servants[90].  The Annales Einsidlenses record the death in 1102 of "Ludovicus comes de Montplicart" killed by his servants[91].  He was referred to as one of her deceased children in the 8 Mar 1105 document of his mother. 
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BAR.htm#ThierryMontbeliarddied1163A] 
DE MOUSSON, Louis (I74813)
 
9


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PIERRE de Lusignan (-after Dec 1174).  "Ugo de Liziniaco" renounced rights over "terram…Ioarena" in favour of Nouaillé by undated charter, subscribed by "…Burgundie uxoris sue, Ugonis filii sui, Roberti filii sui, Gaufredi filii sui, Petri filii sui…"[1110].  "…Petrus de Lezignan…" subscribed a charter dated Dec 1174 under which Raymond Count of Tripoli donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[1111], although it is not certain that this refers to Pierre son of Hugues [VIII] de Lusignan. 
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/AQUITAINE%20NOBILITY.htm#ValenceLusignanMHuguesIIParthenay] 
DE LUSIGNAN, Pierre (I74776)
 
10


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RICHARD de Percy .  A manuscript genealogy of the Percy family names “Henricum et Willielmum et Ricardum” as the sons of “Henricus” and his wife “Idoniam de Clifford[1288]
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL1.htm#MaryPercydied1394] 
DE PERCY, Richard (I75427)
 
11


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ROBERT . Broussillon records that Robert witnessed a charter of his brother Maurice [II] for Roë[576]. Canon at Angers.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ANJOU,%20MAINE.htm#RenaudNeversdied1101B]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

ROBERT . Broussillon records that Robert witnessed a charter of his brother Maurice [II] for Roë[576]. Canon at Angers.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ANJOU,%20MAINE.htm#RenaudNeversdied1101B] 
Robert (I74670)
 
12


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SIMON [II] de Parthenay (-after Aug 1118).  "Gelduinus et Ebo fratres et Gaufridus de Campo-Linario miles noster…et uxores nostræ et filii nostri et nepotes nostri Guillelmus et Simon" donated property to Parthenay Saint-Pierre by charter dated 1092, subscribed by "Willelmi comitis, Gelduini, Ebonis, Guillelmi filius Simonis, Simonis fratris eius, Odonis filius Gelduini, Geraldi de Bosio"[2558].  The Chronique de Maillezais records in 1118 “V Id Aug” that “comes [Willelmus]” fought “Symone Partenacensi et avunculo suo Ugone” [presumably indicating Hugues [VII] Seigneur de Lusignan, who would have been Simon [II]’s first cousin], when Simon was captured[2559].  The Chronique de Maillezais records in 1121 the death of “Simon...Parteniaco morte subitanea”[2560]. 
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/AQUITAINE%20NOBILITY.htm#HuguesParthenaydied1324] 
DE PARTHENAY, Simon II (I74775)
 
13


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TETBERGA, widow of LOUIS Seigneur de Faucigny, daughter of ---.  Her first marriage is proved by the charter dated 4 Sep 1119 by which "Wido…Gebennensis episcopus" donated "ecclesiam de Condominio" for the souls of "…matrie mee Teberge" to Cluny[855].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the undated charter, dated to [1088/99], under which "Aymo comes Gebennensis et filius meus Giroldus" founded the priory of Chamonix, signed by "uterini fratres comitis, Willelmus Fulciniacus et Amedeus…"[856]. Géraud & his [first/second] wife had one child. Géraud & his [second] wife had one child.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BURGUNDY%20Kingdom.htm#_Toc360777119] 
SAVOY, Tetberga of (I75442)
 
14


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THIERRY de Bar (-8 Aug 1171, bur Metz Cathedral).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "episcopi Theodorici et comitis Reynaldi" as sons of "Renaldum Strabum comitem de Barro Ducis"[162].  Archdeacon at Metz before 1128, primicerius 1137.  Etienne Bishop of Metz declared that “frater meus Teodericus comes de Montbiliart” recognised the incorrectness of his claims relating to Gorze Abbey by charter dated to [1138/63], which names “cognati nostri Theoderic, Mettensis primicerii”[163].  Archdeacon at Verdun 1156.  Bishop of Metz 1163.  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensium (Continuatio) records the succession in 1164 of “dominus Theodericus fratris sui[referring to “Stephanus”] comitis Barrensis filius”, his acquisition of “Werinesperc et Radonis-villam. Castrum Conflans”, and his death “III Id Aug”[164]. 
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BAR.htm#StephanieMHuguesBroyes] 
DE BAR, Thierry de Bar Archdeacon at Verdun, Bishop of Metz (I74804)
 
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THOMAS de Percy (-[25 May 1368/17 Nov 1369]).  The testament of "Dominus Henricus de Percy Senior" is dated 13 Sep 1349 and makes bequests to "Henricus de Percy filius meus…Mariæ uxori eiusdem Henrici…Thomæ de Percy filio meo…Rogero filio meo…"[1284].  Bishop of Norwich 1356.  Thomas Percy Bishop of Norwich, in his testament dated 25 May 1368 and proved 17 Nov 1369, names "Thomas Percy and Henry Percy my nephews…Dame Margaret de Ferrers my sister…Matilda Nevill my sister…William d’Aton my nephew…Edward St John…Lady Wingfield" as his beneficiaries[1285]
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL1.htm#MaryPercydied1394] 
DE PERCY, Thomas (I75429)
 
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WILLIAM of Dalton Percy .  A manuscript genealogy of the Percy family names “Henricum de Percy, Walterum, Willielmum et Ingeramum” as children of “Willielmus”, son of “Henricum[1258].  “Willelmus filius Willelmi de Percy” granted “medietatem ville de Daulton in Herternesse”, which he had inherited “post mortem Ingrami de Percy fratris mei racione donacionis...Elena de Percy mater mea”, to “Waltero de Percy fratri meo” by undated charter[1259].  m EVA, daughter of ---.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL1.htm#MaryPercydied1394] 
William de Percy (I28602)
 
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 HUGUES de Bar (-Château de Bouillon 29 Sep 1141, bur Saint-Mihiel).  Laurent de Liège records that "Raynaldi" captured "tribus castellis" in 1134 of which "filius eius Hugo" held "Eventronis-villam" (Watronville)[128].  Etienne Bishop of Metz donated “prædium in feodo Commarciensi...Bernaicuria...sylvam etiam Commarciensem...Foreid” to Riéval “per manum comitis Rainaldi præfati Commarciensis feodi possessoris...collaudante filiisque eius Hugone et Rainaldo” by undated charter, witnessed by “Gerardo castellano...”[129].  Reiner's Triumphale records a siege "XVI Kal Sep" in 1141 in which "duo filii Rainaldi, Ugo…natu maior, et Rainaldus iunior" fought[130].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death of "unos de duobus filiis [=comes Barrensis Raynaldus] Hugo" who was "in castro, in insaniam versus"[131].  Henri Bishop of Toul confirmed the donation of property “molendinum in Commarciensi” made by “comite...Renaldo et ab utroque eius filio Ugone et Renaldo, a dominoque Stephano Metensi episcopo” by charter dated 9 Mar 1141 (O.S.?)[132].  If this charter is correctly dated, the confirmation was made after the death of Hugues. 
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BAR.htm#StephanieMHuguesBroyes] 
DE BAR, Hugues (I74802)
 
18

Alexander Filius Geroldi, brother of the chamberlain Henry fitz Gerold, in whose 'Charta' he appears holding fees 'de novo,' with Hugh fitz Gerold. Warin fitz Gerold also occurs, specifically identified as Henry's brother. Before 1156 he married Alice de Rumilly, widow of William fitz Duncan, through whome he held the honour of Skipton. Benefactor of Southwark priory, to which he granted two measures of chesse in Balking, in Kingston Lisle, Berkshire, confirmed by Alice de Rumilly his wife, who had dower there. The grant was confirmed by his sister Amice de Tresgoz, daughter of Robert fitz Gerold and Alice his wife, widow of Philip de Leyburn and then wife of John de Tresgoz, and also by his nephew Henry II fitz Gerold. Alexander and his wife Alice were also benefactors of Dunstable. Amice occurs as 'Anna' or Amy wife of John de Tresgod in Westminster documents concerning property in London to which she was coheir with Margaret, then wife of Peter de Sutton. Henry fitz Gerold made a grant to the same house for the soul of his brother Warin. He died without issue about midsummer 1178. Maurice of Boreham and Odo Burnard occur on Pipe Role 5 Richard I, 6, as heirs of Alexander fitz Gerold.
Domesday Descendants pp892-893

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Alexander Filius Geroldi, brother of the chamberlain Henry fitz Gerold , in whose 'Charta' he appears holding fees 'de novo,' with Hugh fit z Gerold. Warin fitz Gerold also occurs, specifically identified as He nry's brother. Before 1156 he married Alice de Rumilly, widow of Willi am fitz Duncan, through whome he held the honour of Skipton. Benefacto r of Southwark priory, to which he granted two measures of chesse in B alking, in Kingston Lisle, Berkshire, confirmed by Alice de Rumilly hi s wife, who had dower there. The grant was confirmed by his sister Ami ce de Tresgoz, daughter of Robert fitz Gerold and Alice his wife, wido w of Philip de Leyburn and then wife of John de Tresgoz, and also by h is nephew Henry II fitz Gerold. Alexander and his wife Alice were als o benefactors of Dunstable. Amice occurs as 'Anna' or Amy wife of Joh n de Tresgod in Westminster documents concerning property in London t o which she was coheir with Margaret, then wife of Peter de Sutton. He nry fitz Gerold made a grant to the same house for the soul of his bro ther Warin. He died without issue about midsummer 1178. Maurice of Bor eham and Odo Burnard occur on Pipe Role 5 Richard I, 6, as heirs of Al exander fitz Gerold.
Domesday Descendants pp892-893 
FITZGEROLD, Alexander (I9192)
 
19

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller castle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under his cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bective Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near his 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hopes that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Castle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king took the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richard I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his services there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. He was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Ireland. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying without license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of the custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdered by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity with which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the castle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constable of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, Lacy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not, as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to certain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his father's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quarters knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In October 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 was sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Before Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was also put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a meeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called the Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel, which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tiernan was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to have left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders, and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amongh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyrel. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Canterbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reproved Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was fighting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a month; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hugh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king with his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry de Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same time sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare having died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with the addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building numerous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it his first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their lands. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; but his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusation that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himself. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost his favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by the Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having married the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But in the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor in the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, early in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young earl complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pay tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, and occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a castle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 had gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought named Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed his head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Caharny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said to have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labourers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for this older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was very glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to obtain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himself formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent over to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abbey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin. Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and the monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body to Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb of De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes, a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but small and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperance a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in public business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained many reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisious, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefactor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, including the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her he had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed separately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. By the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, he had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connection with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part in the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting against Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, prince of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's time, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend the Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the other to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughter of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two other sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since William de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been brothers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

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In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller castle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under his cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bective Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near his 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hopes that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Castle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king took the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richard I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his services there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. He was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Ireland. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying without license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of the custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdered by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity with which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the castle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constable of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, Lacy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not, as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to certain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his father's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quarters knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In October 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 was sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Before Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was also put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a meeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called the Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel, which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tiernan was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to have left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders, and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amongh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyrel. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Canterbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reproved Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was fighting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a month; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hugh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king with his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry de Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same time sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare having died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with the addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building numerous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it his first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their lands. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; but his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusation that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himself. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost his favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by the Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having married the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But in the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor in the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, early in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young earl complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pay tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, and occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a castle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 had gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought named Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed his head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Caharny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said to have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labourers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for this older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was very glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to obtain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himself formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent over to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abbey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin. Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and the monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body to Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb of De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes, a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but small and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperance a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in public business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained many reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisious, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefactor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, including the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her he had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed separately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. By the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, he had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connection with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part in the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting against Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, prince of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's time, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend the Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the other to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughter of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two other sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since William de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been brothers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------



In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller castle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under his cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bective Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near his 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hopes that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Castle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king took the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richard I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his services there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. He was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Ireland. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying without license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of the custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdered by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity with which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the castle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constable of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, Lacy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not, as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to certain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his father's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quarters knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In October 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 was sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Before Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was also put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a meeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called the Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel, which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tiernan was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to have left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders, and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amongh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyrel. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Canterbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reproved Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was fighting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a month; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hugh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king with his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry de Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same time sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare having died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with the addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building numerous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it his first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their lands. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; but his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusation that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himself. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost his favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by the Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having married the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But in the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor in the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, early in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young earl complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pay tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, and occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a castle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 had gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought named Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed his head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Caharny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said to have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labourers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for this older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was very glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to obtain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himself formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent over to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abbey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin. Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and the monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body to Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb of De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes, a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but small and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperance a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in public business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained many reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisious, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefactor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, including the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her he had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed separately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. By the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, he had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connection with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part in the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting against Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, prince of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's time, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend the Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the other to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughter of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two other sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since William de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been brothers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------



In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller castle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under his cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bective Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near his 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hopes that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Castle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king took the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richard I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his services there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. He was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Ireland. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying without license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of the custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdered by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity with which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the castle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constable of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, Lacy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not, as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to certain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his father's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quarters knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In October 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 was sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Before Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was also put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a meeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called the Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel, which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tiernan was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to have left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders, and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amongh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyrel. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Canterbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reproved Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was fighting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a month; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hugh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king with his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry de Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same time sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare having died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with the addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building numerous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it his first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their lands. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; but his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusation that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himself. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost his favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by the Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having married the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But in the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor in the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, early in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young earl complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pay tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, and occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a castle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 had gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought named Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed his head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Caharny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said to have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labourers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for this older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was very glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to obtain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himself formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent over to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abbey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin. Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and the monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body to Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb of De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes, a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but small and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperance a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in public business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained many reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisious, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefactor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, including the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her he had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed separately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. By the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, he had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connection with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part in the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting against Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, prince of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's time, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend the Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the other to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughter of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two other sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since William de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been brothers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------



In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------



In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller castle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under his cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bective Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near his 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hopes that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Castle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king took the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richard I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his services there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. He was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Ireland. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying without license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of the custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdered by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity with which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the castle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constable of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, Lacy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not, as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to certain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his father's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quarters knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In October 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 was sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Before Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was also put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a meeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called the Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel, which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tiernan was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to have left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders, and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amongh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyrel. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Canterbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reproved Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was fighting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a month; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hugh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king with his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry de Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same time sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare having died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with the addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building numerous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it his first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their lands. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; but his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusation that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himself. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost his favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by the Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having married the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But in the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor in the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, early in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young earl complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pay tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, and occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a castle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 had gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought named Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed his head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Caharny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said to have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labourers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for this older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was very glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to obtain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himself formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent over to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abbey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin. Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and the monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body to Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb of De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes, a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but small and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperance a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in public business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained many reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisious, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefactor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, including the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her he had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed separately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. By the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, he had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connection with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part in the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting against Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, prince of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's time, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend the Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the other to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughter of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two other sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since William de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been brothers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------



In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller castle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under his cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bective Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near his 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hopes that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Castle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king took the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richard I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his services there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. He was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Ireland. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying without license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of the custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdered by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity with which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the castle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constable of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, Lacy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not, as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to certain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his father's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quarters knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In October 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 was sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Before Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was also put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a meeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called the Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel, which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tiernan was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to have left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders, and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amongh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyrel. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Canterbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reproved Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was fighting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a month; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hugh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king with his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry de Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same time sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare having died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with the addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building numerous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it his first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their lands. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; but his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusation that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himself. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost his favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by the Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having married the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But in the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor in the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, early in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young earl complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pay tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, and occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a castle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 had gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought named Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed his head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Caharny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said to have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labourers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for this older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was very glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to obtain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himself formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent over to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abbey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin. Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and the monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body to Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb of De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes, a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but small and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperance a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in public business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained many reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisious, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefactor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, including the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her he had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed separately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. By the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, he had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connection with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part in the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting against Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, prince of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's time, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend the Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the other to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughter of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two other sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since William de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been brothers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------



In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller castle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under his cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bective Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near his 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hopes that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Castle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king took the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richard I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his services there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. He was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Ireland. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying without license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of the custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdered by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity with which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the castle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constable of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, Lacy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not, as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to certain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his father's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quarters knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In October 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 was sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Before Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was also put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a meeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called the Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel, which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tiernan was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to have left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders, and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amongh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyrel. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Canterbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reproved Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was fighting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a month; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hugh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king with his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry de Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same time sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare having died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with the addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building numerous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it his first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their lands. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; but his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusation that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himself. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost his favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by the Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having married the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But in the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor in the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, early in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young earl complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pay tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, and occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a castle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 had gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought named Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed his head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Caharny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said to have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labourers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for this older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was very glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to obtain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himself formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent over to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abbey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin. Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and the monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body to Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb of De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes, a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but small and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperance a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in public business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained many reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisious, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefactor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, including the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her he had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed separately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. By the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, he had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connection with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part in the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting against Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, prince of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's time, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend the Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the other to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughter of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two other sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since William de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been brothers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------



In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II who sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de Clare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdom in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden castle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Earl"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Connor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the castle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a stone keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surrounded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the north. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that the keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in the lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were built to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller castle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under his cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bective Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near his 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hopes that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Castle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king took the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richard I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his services there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. He was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Ireland. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying without license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of the custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdered by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity with which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the castle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constable of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, Lacy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not, as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to certain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his father's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quarters knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In October 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 was sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Before Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was also put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a meeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called the Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel, which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tiernan was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to have left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders, and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amongh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyrel. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Canterbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reproved Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he wa 
DE LACY, Hugh Baron de Lacy, Lord Meath (I7024)
 
20

Margaret, daughter of 6th Earl of Mar. [Burke's Peerage, p. 2716]
Marjory/Mary, widow of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl of the creation deemed to have been effected by 1115, and daughter of 6th Earl of Mar.
Burke's Peerage, p. 2770

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Margaret, daughter of 6th Earl of Mar. [Burke's Peerage, p. 2716]
Marjory/Mary, widow of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl of th e creation deemed to have been effected by 1115, and daughter of 6th E arl of Mar.
Burke's Peerage, p. 2770 
Margaret de Mar (I12696)
 
21

Morgan Mwynfawr ( d 665?), regulus of Glamorgan, was the son of Arthrwys ap Meurig ap Tewdrig, and may be the Morcant whose death is recorded in 'Annales Cambriae' under the year 665. The charters contained in the 'Book of LLandaff' include a number of grants which he is said to have made to the church of Llandaff in the time of Bishops Oudoceus and Berthguin. Other charters in the book of the time of Bertguin are attested by him, and an account is also given of ecclesiastical proceedings taken against him by Oudoceus in consequence of his murdering his uncle Ffriog. Though the 'Book of Llandaff' was compiled about the middle of the twelfth century, at a time when the see was vigorously asserting disputed claims, it nevertheless embodies a quantity of valmacble old material, and (details apart) is probably to be relied upon in the general view it gives of the position of Morgan. He appears as owner of lands in Gower, Glamorgan, and Gwent, and since the latter two districts were afterwards ruled over by his descendants, was probably sovereign of most of the region between the Towy and the Wye.
It has been very generally supposed that Morgannwg - a term of varying application, but usually denoting the country between the Wye and the Tawe - takes its name from Morgan Mwynfawr. Mr Phillimore, in a note to the Cymmrodorion edition of Owen's 'Pembrokeshre' suggests, however, that it is merely a variant of Gwlad Fogan, and that previous to the eleventh century the country was always known as Glywysing.
Morgan Mwynafawr, in common with may of his contemporaries, is a figure in the legends of the bards. He is mentioned in the 'Historical Triads' as one of the three Reddeners (i.e. devastators) of the isle of Britain; in the 'Iolo MSS' he is said to have been a cousin of King Arthur and a knight of his court, while his car was reckoned one of the nine treasures of Britain, for 'whoever sat in it would be immediately wharesoever he wished.' [Dictionary of National Biography XIII:907]
Morgan Mwynfawr (fl 730), 'the Benefactor,' or Morgan ab Athrwys, king of Morgannwg, from whom the old kingdom of Glamorgan, embracing Glywysing and Gwent, probably took its name. He was the grandson and no doubt the successor of king Meurig ap Tewdrig, the reputed husband of Onbrans, daughter of Gwrgant Mawr, last king of Erging (S. Herefordshire). Morgan's realm actually extended beyond the Wye into part of Erging, and westwards as far as the Towy. He was succeeded by his son Ithel. [Dictionary of Welsh Biography 639]
The story of Morgan Mwynfawr (the Courteous) is the nest ray of light thrown on the annals of Glamorgan. He was the son of Athrwys, whom some perilously identify with Arthur, and so great was his renown and high his character as protector of his country, bleeding from the wounds inflicted by Nordmanni and Mercian adventurers, that the territory he ruled chose to call itself after his name - Gwlad-Morgan and Morgan-wg, indifferently, - both signifying the country or land of Morgan. He is often called Morgan Mawr, the great, as well as Morgan Mwyn-fawr - the greatly gentle or courteous, and it is just possible that the latter epithet in its original uncompunded form was Mwyn Mawr - 'the great, the gentle.' In the 'history' of Glamorgan, 'out of the book that was in the possession of the Rev Mr. Gamage' of St Athan's, and which passed through the hands of Iolo, it is said that he resided at Adur and Breigan, and that he and his race, both before and after, were endued with the grace of supreme good fortune up to the time of Owain ap Morgan Hen. [Annals and Antiquities of Wales I:485-486]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------





Morgan Mwynfawr ( d 665?), regulus of Glamorgan, was the son of Arthrw ys ap Meurig ap Tewdrig, and may be the Morcant whose death is recorde d in 'Annales Cambriae' under the year 665. The charters contained i n the 'Book of LLandaff' include a number of grants which he is said t o have made to the church of Llandaff in the time of Bishops Oudoceu s and Berthguin. Other charters in the book of the time of Bertguin ar e attested by him, and an account is also given of ecclesiastical proc eedings taken against him by Oudoceus in consequence of his murderin g his uncle Ffriog. Though the 'Book of Llandaff' was compiled about t he middle of the twelfth century, at a time when the see was vigorousl y asserting disputed claims, it nevertheless embodies a quantity of va lmacble old material, and (details apart) is probably to be relied upo n in the general view it gives of the position of Morgan. He appears a s owner of lands in Gower, Glamorgan, and Gwent, and since the latte r two districts were aft.erwards ruled over by his descendants, was pr obably sovereign of most of the region between the Towy and the Wye.
It has been very generally supposed that Morgannwg - a term of varyin g application, but usually denoting the country between the Wye and th e Tawe - takes its name from Morgan Mwynfawr. Mr Phillimore, in a not e to the Cymmrodorion edition of Owen's 'Pembrokeshre' suggeSte., howe ver, that it is merely a variant of Gwlad Fogan, and that previous t o the eleventh century the country was always known as Glywysing.
Morgan Mwynafawr, in common with may of his contemporaries, is a figur e in the legends of the bards. He is mentioned in the 'Historical Tria ds' as one of the three Reddeners (i.e. devastators) of the isle of Br itain; in the 'Iolo MSS' he is said to have been a cousin of King Arth ur and a knight of his court, while his car was reckoned one of the ni ne treasures of Britain, for 'whoever sat in it would be immediately w haresoever he wished.' [Dictionary of National Biography XIII:907]
Morgan Mwynfawr (fl 730), 'the Benefactor,' or Morgan ab Athrwys, kin g of Morgannwg, from whom the old kingdom of Glamorgan, embracing Glyw ysing and Gwent, probably took its name. He was the grandson and no do ubt the successor of king Meurig ap Tewdrig, the reputed husband of On brans, daughter of Gwrgant Mawr, last king of Erging (S. Herefordshire ). Morgan's realm actually extended beyond the Wye into part of Erging , and westwards as far as the Towy. He was succeeded by his son Ithel . [Dictionary of Welsh Biography 639]
The story of Morgan Mwynfawr (the Courteous) is the nest ray of ligh t thrown on the annals of Glamorgan. He was the son of Athrwys, whom s ome perilously identify with Arthur, and so great was his renown and h igh his character as protector of his country, bleeding from the wound s inflicted by Nordmanni and Mercian adventurers, that the territory h e ruled chose to call itself aft.er his name - Gwlad-Morgan and Morgan -wg, indifferently, - both signifying the country or land of Morgan. H e is often called Morgan Mawr, the great, as well as Morgan Mwyn-faw r - the greatly gentle or courteous, and it is just possible that th e latter epithet in its original uncompunded form was Mwyn Mawr - 'th e great, the gentle.' In the 'history' of Glamorgan, 'out of the boo k that was in the possession of the Rev Mr. Gamage' of St Athan's, an d which passed through the hands of Iolo, it is said that he resided a t Adur and Breigan, and that he and his race, both before and aft.er , were endued with the grace of supreme good fortune up to the time o f Owain ap Morgan Hen. [Annals and Antiquities of Wales I:485-486] 
AP ATHRWYS, Morgan King of Gwent and Glywysing (I42854)
 
22

Stephen, future king of England, was born about the year 1096. His mother was Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror, and heir to all his strength of will and temper. His father was Stephen Count of Blois and Chartres, a boastful character who had made himself the laughing stock of Europe by running away from the siege of Antioch after having been made commander-in-chief there.
Adela's two favored sons, Stephen and Henry, were both to find their fortunes in England. Henry, a Cluniac monk, quickly accumulated Glastonbury, the richest abbey, and Winchester, the second richest diocese in England, and set out on his career of financial wizardry and ecclesiastical statesmanship. A man of rare power, vision and tact, he was infinitely more attuned to great responsibilities than his brother.
Stephen had a ready charm, and his gay and seemingly open nature made him a great success at court. His uncle Henry I loaded favours on him: he was given estates in England of some half a million acres, and made a favourable marriage to the rich heiress of the Count of Boulogne. Matilda was to be both a loyal and an able wife.
In 1136 Henry died, and though he had made all his barons swear fealty to his daughter Matilda before his death, Stephen now moved speedily to get himself accepted as King in England. His brother swayed the Church to his side, the Londoners were bought with a substantial grant of privileges, and the Norman barons were persmacded that a woman ruler of well-known arrogance and intractability, married to the leader of the Normans' traditional enemies, the Angevins, would be no good prospect for England.
Stephen's dash and promises carried him through for a while, but quickly enough people discovered his faults: he was tricky, changeable, often stupidly weak; he simply could not be relied upon, nor could he trust others. In 1139 Matilda landed, and her bastard brother Robert of Gloucester opened the West to her. During the next eight years she was to win defectors from Stephen's bad government.
In 1141, at Lincoln, Stephen's barons deserted him in battle, and he fell prisoner to Matilda. But she proved as unhappy a mistress as Stephen had been master, and many people were glad when Robert of Gloucester was captured by Stephen's Queen at the rout of Winchester, and Matilda was forced to release Stephen to get him back.
Many barons favoured this dmacl sitmaction in which they could bargain for their services, and live as war-lords. Castles sprung up all over the land, and in many parts a dreadful anarchy reigned, so that many people openly declared that Christ and his Saints were asleep, and the Devil ruled.
Matilda's son Henry had twice invaded and been repulsed in 1147 and 1149, but when he came again in 1153 he was backed by a tremendous accumulation of continental power. The death of Stephen's son Eustace prompted him to negotiate with the young Duke, and he was encouraged in this by the urgings of the Church and of the Norman barons who wished to regain their continental estates now under Henry's control. So Matilda's son was made heir, and for a further year Stephen ruled, in peace at last, until his death in October 1154. He was buried in his abbey of Faversham.
[Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1995]

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Stephen, future king of England, was born about the year 1096. His mot her was Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror, and heir to all hi s strength of will and temper. His father was Stephen Count of Blois a nd Chartres, a boastful character who had made himself the laughing st ock of Europe by running away from the siege of Antioch aft.er havin g been made commander-in-chief there.
Adela's two favored sons, Stephen and Henry, were both to find their f ortunes in England. Henry, a Cluniac monk, quickly accumulated Glaston bury, the richest abbey, and Winchester, the second richest diocese i n England, and set out on his career of financial wizardry and ecclesi astical statesmanship. A man of rare power, vision and tact, he was in finitely more attuned to great responsibilities than his brother.
Stephen had a ready charm, and his gay and seemingly open nature mad e him a great success at court. His uncle Henry I loaded favours on hi m: he was given estates in England of some half a million acres, and m ade a favourable marriage to the rich heiress of the Count of Boulogne . Matilda was to be both a loyal and an able wife.
In 1136 Henry died, and though he had made all his barons swear fealt y to his daughter Matilda before his death, Stephen now moved speedil y to get himself accepted as King in England. His brother swayed the C hurch to his side, the Londoners were bought with a substantial gran t of privileges, and the Norman barons were persmacded that a woman ru ler of well-known arrogance and intractability, married to the leade r of the Normans' traditional enemies, the Angevins, would be no goo d prospect for England.
Stephen's dash and promises carried him through for a while, but quick ly enough people discovered his faults: he was tricky, changeable, oft en stupidly weak; he simply could not be relied upon, nor could he tru st others. In 1139 Matilda landed, and her bastard brother Robert of G loucester opened the West to her. During the next eight years she wa s to win defectors from Stephen's bad government.
In 1141, at Lincoln, Stephen's barons deserted him in battle, and he f ell prisoner to Matilda. But she proved as unhappy a mistress as Steph en had been master, and many people were glad when Robert of Glouceste r was captured by Stephen's Queen at the rout of Winchester, and Matil da was forced to release Stephen to get him back.
Many barons favoured this dmacl sitmaction in which they could bargai n for their services, and live as war-lords. Castles sprung up all ove r the land, and in many parts a dreadful anarchy reigned, so that man y people openly declared that Christ and his St.s were asleep, and th e Devil ruled.
Matilda's son Henry had twice invaded and been repulsed in 1147 and 11 49, but when he came again in 1153 he was backed by a tremendous accum ulation of continental power. The death of Stephen's son Eustace promp ted him to negotiate with the young Duke, and he was encouraged in thi s by the urgings of the Church and of the Norman barons who wished t o regain their continental estates now under Henry's control. So Matil da's son was made heir, and for a further year Stephen ruled, in peac e at last, until his death in October 1154. He was buried in his abbe y of Faversham. 
Etienne Comte de Blois, de Chartres, de Châteaudun, de Sancerre et de Meaux (I5000)
 
23

--------------------------------

Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to:navigation, searchRobert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby

Battle of Agincourt from the Chroniques d’Enguerrand de Monstrelet (early 15th century)
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Montagu
Maud Stanhope

Issue
Joan Willoughby
Father William Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby
Mother Lucy le Strange
Born c.1385
Died 25 July 1452
Buried Buried at Mettingham, Suffolk

Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby KG (c.1385 – 25 July 1452) was an English baron and soldier in the Hundred Years' War.

Contents

1 Family
2 Career
3 Marriages and issue
4 Footnotes
5 References

Family

Robert Willoughby was the son of William Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, and his first wife, Lucy le Strange, daughter of Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Knockin (Shropshire), by Aline, daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel. He had a younger brother and three sisters:[1]
Sir Thomas Willoughby, who married Joan Arundel, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Richard Arundel by his wife, Alice.
Elizabeth Willoughby, who married Henry Beaumont, 5th Baron Beaumont.
Margery Willoughby, who married William FitzHugh, 4th Baron FitzHugh.
Margaret Willoughby, who married Sir Thomas Skipwith.Career

Willoughby's father, the 5th Baron, died on 4 December 1409. Willoughby, aged 24, succeeded him in the title, and had seisin of his lands 8 February 1410. In 1412/13 he served with Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, on his expedition to Normandy and Bordeaux. In April 1415 he attended the great council which approved plans for King Henry V's invasion of France, and on 5 August 1415 he was among the peers who tried Richard, Earl of Cambridge, and Lord Scrope after the discovery of the Southampton Plot on the eve of invasion. He crossed to France with the King's army, and was present at the taking of Harfleur and at the Battle of Agincourt.[2]
Quartered arms of Sir Robert de Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby d'Eresby, KG
At the death on 29 September 1416 of Isabel, widow of William de Ufford, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, he succeeded to the castle and town of Orford and the manors of Parham and Ufford in Suffolk.[3] In December 1417 he was made a Knight of the Garter. From 1417, according to Cokayne, Complete Peerage, he 'served continually for many years in the French wars'. He was at the siege of Caen in 1417, the siege of Rouen in July 1418, and the siege of Melun from July to November 1420. He accompanied the King back to England in 1421, and was Chief Butler at the coronation of Catherine of Valois on 23 February. According to Cokayne he was at the siege of Meaux from October 1421 to May 1422; however historian Gerald Harriss considers his presence at Meaux uncertain as he was in England gathering reinforcements to take to France in May 1422.[4]
On 31 July and 1 August 1423 he participated in the relief of Cravant, personally forcing the passage of the bridge over the Yonne river.[5] He was with John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, then Regent, at the surrender of Ivry on 15 August and at the Battle of Verneuil on 17 August 1424, where he and Sir John Fastolf jointly captured the Duke of Alencon. For these services he was rewarded with a grant, on 20 September 1424, of the comté of Vendôme.[6]
In July and August 1425 he was with Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury, at the siege of Le Mans, thus completing the conquest of Maine. In July of the following year he was with Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, at Bonneval. In February 1427/8 he was with the Earl of Suffolk at Dreux.[7]
On 17 June 1429 he had licence to accompany Cardinal Henry Beaufort on a crusade against the Hussites. However the forces assembled for the crusade were sent instead to France to assist the Duke of Bedford after the English were defeated at the Battle of Patay on 18 June 1429. He played a major role in Henry VI's coronation expedition in 1430. During this phase of the war the English suffered reverses, and lost ground to the south of Normandy, and on 4 October 1430 Willoughby was granted the comté of Beaumont-sur-Oise in compensation for the comté of Vendôme.[8]
Willoughby was appointed the King's Lieutenant in Lower Normandy before February 1432, where he had mixed success, suffering defeats by the French at Vivoin and the siege of Saint-Céneri-le-Gérei in 1432, but capturing St Valéry after a siege in July–August 1433. He was Captain of Bayeux in 1433, and of Pont de l'Arche about 1434. In July 1435 he raised a force of 2000 men in England, and with Lords Talbot and Scales besieged Saint-Denis, capturing it in October. He was given command of Paris in October 1435 when Talbot left for Rouen, but for lack of support from English forces was compelled to surrender the Bastille to the French on 17 April 1436.[9]
Willoughby campaigned for the last time in 1437, when Warwick personally requested that he accompany Warwick to Normandy. Willoughby had returned to England by the end of 1438. On 17 July 1439 he had licence to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and according to Harriss, may well have done so as his name does not reappear in English records until May 1443.[10]
He is said to have been made Master of the King's Hart Hounds in 1441-2. In March 1445 he was one of the peers who escorted King Henry VI's wife, Margaret of Anjou, to England.[11] In his latter years he was involved in conflict over control of Lincolnshire with Sir William Tailboys and his allies.[12]
Willoughby died 25 July 1452, aged about 67, without male issue, and was buried in the chantry college at Mettingham, Suffolk. All traces of his tomb have disappeared.[13]
Willoughby's only child, Joan, married Richard de Welles, 7th Baron Welles (d.1470), by whom she had a son, Sir Robert Welles, and a daughter, Joan Welles. At Willoughby's death, his lands and title descended to his daughter and son-in-law, Richard de Welles, 7th Baron Welles.[14]
Marriages and issue

Willoughby married firstly, before 21 February 1421, Elizabeth Montagu, daughter of John Montagu, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, by whom he had an only daughter, Joan Willoughby, who married Richard de Welles, 7th Baron Welles.[15]
He married secondly, before 8 January 1449, Maud Stanhope, daughter of Sir Richard Stanhope of Rampton, Nottinghamshire, by his second wife, Maud Cromwell, daughter of Ralph Cromwell, 2nd Baron Cromwell, but had no issue by her. His widow married secondly, Thomas Neville, second son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, slain 30 December 1460 at the Battle of Wakefield, and thirdly, Sir Gervase Clifton, beheaded 6 May 1471 after the Battle of Tewkesbury. Lady Maud alleged that Sir Gervase Clifton had 'wasted and destroyed' more than £1000 worth of jewels, plate and household goods which she brought to the marriage. She died 30 August 1497, and was buried at the Collegiate Church at Tattershall, Lincolnshire.[16]
Cokayne, G.E. (1959). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII (Part II). St. Catherine Press.
Harris, Barbara J. (2002). English Aristocratic Women 1450-1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harriss, G.L. (2004). Willoughby, Robert (III), sixth Baron Willoughby (1385–1452). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 5 December 2012. (subscription required)
Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709

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--------------------------------

(2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709 
DE WILLOUGHBY, Robert (I57826)
 
24

ANNA ([886/88]-[901/early 904]). The basis for this betrothal is a letter written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French translation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his unsuitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'accord…conclu avec le Franc…tu lui destinais comme épouse ta fille unique…[au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrive l'infortune que l'on sait". The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipani proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothar II King of Lotharingia who married Adalbert Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (his blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Louis III King of Italy (his title in 900). Settipani assumes that the marriage actually took place. However, the translation only refers to a proposed marriage ("…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that the marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever left Byzantium for Provence. Anna is not named in any of the surviving charters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted. This would have been the first marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperors as no previous betrothal resulted in a marriage. This absence from contemporary western documentation is therefore striking. It also contrasts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine origin of Theophano, wife of Emperor Otto II, even though Theophano's precise ancestry is still a mystery. Traditional genealogies show Emperor Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged first marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose name. However, another possible explanation is that the name was a symbol of the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two successor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustrious predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", completely independent of his mother's maternal ancestry. Anna was crowned Augusta in Constantinople in [899/900], after the death of her mother and before the third marriage of her father. Anna presumably died before the birth of her younger half-sister, also named Anna, which occurred between 11 May 903 (when the younger Anna's mother was installed in the imperial palace by Emperor Leon VI) and early 904 (given the birth of the future Emperor Konstantinos VII in 905). Betrothed ([Jun/Jul] 900) LOUIS King [of Provence, son of BOSON King [of Provence] and his second wife Ermengardis [Carolingian] (before 882-Arles 5 Jun 928). He was recognised in 900 as LOUIS III King of Italy, in opposition to Berengario I Marchese of Friulia. He was crowned Emperor LUDWIG III in 901, deposed in 902.

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in 901, deposed in 902. 
Anna (I23103)
 
25

Died in infancy.

-- MERGED NOTE ------------





Died in infancy. 
FOULKE, Samuel (I17762)
 
26

MEGINGOZ [I] [Megingaud/Megingold], son of [ADALBERT] and his wife --- (-876 or after). Megingoz son of Adalbert is named in a Papal letter dated 879[620], although it is not known whether this is the same person as Megingoz [I]. "…Megingoz…" is among those listed as present in the charter dated 12 Oct 847 under which King Ludwig granted property to "Pribina". "Heriricus" donated property "Wimundasheim in pago Wurmacense" to Trier with the advice and consent of "fratris nostri…Hunfridi episcopi" by charter dated 21 Aug 868, subscribed by "Megingaudi comitis, Megengaudi vicedomni". Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks confirmed donations to Kloster Prüm by charter dated 12 Apr 870 which states that Prüm was founded by "Megingaudus comes…" among others. Graf im Wormsgau. He married ---. The origin of the wife of Megingoz [I] is not known with certainty. She may have been --- im Wormsgau, daughter of Robert [III] Graf im Wormsgau and his wife Wiltrud ---, as indicated by the charter dated 876 under which Graf Megingoz, with his nepos Odo, donated property at Mattenheim. Settipani identifies Odo with the future Eudes King of France, suggesting that either Megingoz himself or his wife was closely related to the Rotbertiner family. This hypothesis appears corroborated by Megingoz [II], probable son of Megingoz [I], being described as nepos of King Eudes in 892 by Regino (see below). Jackman suggests that the wife of Megingoz [I] was named ROTLIND, whose name is closely associated with the family in the Memorial book of Remiremont. However, it is also possible that Megingoz's relationship to King Eudes was more remote than "uncle" or that he was a maternal relative of the king.]
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANCONIA.htm#Heinrichdiedafter812B]

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MEGINGOZ [I] [Megingaud/Megingold], son of [ADALBERT] and his wife -- - (-876 or aft.er). Megingoz son of Adalbert is named in a Papal lette r dated 879[620], although it is not known whether this is the same pe rson as Megingoz [I]. "…Megingoz…" is among those listed as present i n the charter dated 12 Oct 847 under which King Ludwig granted propert y to "Pribina". "Heriricus" donated property "Wimundasheim in pago Wur macense" to Trier with the advice and consent of "fratris nostri…Hunfr idi episcopi" by charter dated 21 Aug 868, subscribed by "Megingaudi c omitis, Megengaudi vicedomni". Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the Ea st Franks confirmed donations to Kloster Prüm by charter dated 12 Ap r 870 which states that Prüm was founded by "Megingaudus comes…" amon g others. Graf im Wormsgau. He married ---. The origin of the wife o f Megingoz [I] is not known with certainty. She may have been --- im W ormsgau, daughter of Robert [III] Graf im Wormsgau and his wife Wiltru d ---, as indicated by the charter dated 876 under which Graf Megingoz , with his nepos Odo, donated property at Mattenheim. Settipani identi fies Odo with the future Eudes King of France, suggesting that eithe r Megingoz himself or his wife was closely related to the Rotbertine r family. This hypothesis appears corroborated by Megingoz [II], proba ble son of Megingoz [I], being described as nepos of King Eudes in 89 2 by Regino (see below). Jackman suggeSte. that the wife of Megingoz [ I] was named ROTLIND, whose name is closely associated with the famil y in the Memorial book of Remiremont. However, it is also possible tha t Megingoz's relationship to King Eudes was more remote than "uncle" o r that he was a maternal relative of the king.] 
Megingoz I, Graf im Worsgau (I50406)
 
27

Nudd Hael, King of Selcovia, (Born c.AD 530), (Welsh: Nudd; Latin: Natanus; English: Nathan)
King Nudd succeeded his father, Senyllt, to the lowland border kingdom of unknown name centred around Selkirkshire in the mid-6th century. He was called 'Hael' - the Generous - and was celebrated in Welsh poetry, along with his cousins, Riderch and Morfael, as one of the 'Three Generous Men of Britain'.
These three, with Clydno Eityn of Din-Eityn (Edinburgh), were firm allies and, during the AD 560s, they took their mighty armies south and invaded Gwynedd in revenge for the killing of their cousin, Elidyr Mwynfawr. They devastated the country around Caer-yn-Arfon (Caernarfon) but were eventually driven out by King Rhun Hir.
An early 6th century monument discovered in Yarrow in Selkirkshire may refer to this character and his two sons, though the date is not quite right and they may be otherwise unknown relations. It is inscribed: "This is the everlasting memorial: In this place lie the most famous princes, Nudus and Domnogenus; in this tomb lie the two sons Liberalis [the Generous One]."
He was also father of SS. Dingat and Llidnerth, and the lovely Teagu Eurfron, and was succeeded in his kingdom by the former.
Source: http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/nuddhsv.html 
AP SENYLLT, Nudd (I42840)
 
28

NUÑO Laínez, son of [LAÍN Fernández & his wife ---] . The Historia Roderici names “Nuño Laínez” as the son of “Laín Fernández”[541]. The "Corónicas" Navarras does not directly name the father of "Nuyno Laniz", but the context of the narrative as a whole implies that he was the son of Laín Fernández[542]. The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "Nuño Lainez" as the son of "Lain Fernandez". He married EILO Fernández, daughter of [FERNÁN Rodríguez and his wife ---]. The "Corónicas" Navarras name "Pero Ferrandiz et una fija…don Elo" as the children of "Ferrant Rodríguiz", stating that the latter married "Nuyno Laniz" although it does not state directly the parentage of the latter. The Historia Roderici names “Pedro Fernández and a daughter named Eylo” as the children of “Fernán Rodríguez”, adding that Eilo married “Nuño Laínez”. The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Fernando Rodriguez, D. Ello" as the children of "D. Fernando Rodriguez", adding in an earlier passage that "Nuño Lainez" married "D. Ello".
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SPANISH%20NOBILITY%20EARLY%20MEDIEVAL.htm#NunoLainezA]

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NUÑO Laínez, son of [LAÍN Fernández & his wife ---] . The Historia Rod erici names “Nuño Laínez” as the son of “Laín Fernández”[541]. The "Co rónicas" Navarras does not directly name the father of "Nuyno Laniz" , but the context of the narrative as a whole implies that he was th e son of Laín Fernández[542]. The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelo s names "Nuño Lainez" as the son of "Lain Fernandez". He married EIL O Fernández, daughter of [FERNÁN Rodríguez and his wife ---]. The "Cor ónicas" Navarras name "Pero Ferrandiz et una fija…don Elo" as the chil dren of "Ferrant Rodríguiz", stating that the latter married "Nuyno La niz" although it does not state directly the parentage of the latter . The Historia Roderici names “Pedro Fernández and a daughter named Ey lo” as the children of “Fernán Rodríguez”, adding that Eilo married “N uño Laínez”. The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Ferna ndo Rodriguez, D. Ello" as the children of "D. Fernando Rodriguez", ad ding in an earlier passage that "Nuño Lainez" married "D. Ello". 
LAÍNEZ, Núño (I8126)
 
29

RESIDENCES: Sanquhar Castle is a ruined 13th century castle, with an altered keep and ranges built around a small courtyard. A crumbling 4 storey tower dominates the ruin, with a ruined hall block and gateway passage and semicircular tower also remain. The castle is not posted as dangerous, as are many of the privately owned (or non-Historic Scotland) castles, but it doesn't look very stable to me. Mark, of course, scrambled up into the ruined tower despite the gaps in the stone and precarious stairs.
The lands originally belonged to the Ross family, but passed by marriage to the Crichtons (see Crichton Castle) in the 14th century. The four storey ashlar-faced tower is all that remains of the original structure, although it was probably intended to be one of four towers in the couryard by 1380. The design may have been changed before completion circa 1400. On the south-west side of the couryard is a set of very ruined service rooms of the late 16th century, although we had a hard time picking out the shape of the foundations. The round stair turret (visible here as the stumps of stairs running up the wall) between the old hall and guard room and the connecting walls are all now reduced to their foundations.
The Crichton family were made Earls of Dumfries in 1633, but in 1639 sold the property to Sir William Douglas of Drumlanrig (later Duke of Queensberry). The 1st Duke built a new castle at Drumlanrig, but after staying in it only one night, decided he did not like it and moved back to Sanquhar. The family moved to Drumlanrig after his death, and Sanquhar was abandoned.
Reconstruction did not occur until the 19th century. The 3rd Marquis of Bute started rebuilding Sanquhar Castle in 1896, but this was stopped at his death in 1900, and the castle has been left to crumble.
Two ghosts reputedly haunt the castle -- one is a "White lady", a spirit of a young woman, Marion of Dalpeddar, who disappeared in 1580 and may have been murdered by one of the Crichton lords. A woman's skeleton was found in a wall during excavations in 1875-6, which might support this story. The other ghost is that of John Wilson, hanged by another of the Crichtons, who manifests himself with groans and rattling. The Chrichtons weren't terribly nice people, were they? 
Isabel de Ros (I27521)
 
30

Senyllt, King of Selcovia, (Born c.AD 512), (Welsh: Senyllt; Latin: Seniltus; English: Senild)
Senyllt was a son of King Cedic of Greater Strathclyde. Upon his father's death, in the early 6th century, the kingdom was divided between his brother, Tutgual Tutclyd, and himself. Being the elder of the two, Tudwal took the greater portion of Strathclyde, whilst Senyllt appears to have become king of the region around Selkirkshire where the people were known as the Selgovae. Although the name of his kingdom is unknown, for identification purposes, the Latin 'Selcovia,' would seem appropriate. He was succeeded by his son, Nudd Hael.
Source: http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/senylsv.html 
AP CEDIC, Senyllt (I42839)
 
31

She was co-heiress of Sir Robert Harcourt.

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She was co-heiress of Sir Robert Harcourt. 
HARCOURT, Agnes (I45219)
 
32

Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Bennet and not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would most likely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd.

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Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Bennet a nd not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would most li kely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd.

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Bennet and not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would most likely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd.

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Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Bennet a nd not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would most li kely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd.

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Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Benne t and not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would mos t likely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd. 
BENNET, Philippa (I14129)
 
33

The name Jones (of the Blockley family) is on Scull and Heap's Map, 1750; and Faden's Map, 1777.

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The name Jones (of the Blockley family) is on Scull and Heap's Map, 17 50; and Faden's Map, 1777. 
JONES, James Jr. (I18348)
 
34

The name of Robert Lloyd is on the List of Taxables for 1693 - A young man. Susquehanna List, 1696. His plantation was northward of that of Rowland Ellis of Bryn Mawr. By deed, Sept. 5, 1698, he purchased from Wm. Howell, Edward Jones, John Roberts, Griffith Owen and Daniel Humphrey, 409 acres of land that had been part of the Thomas Ellis tract. In Feb. 1709, Robert Lloyd and Lowry his wife, conveyed 154 1/2 a. to Thos. bro. of Robert.

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The name of Robert Lloyd is on the List of Taxables for 1693 - A youn g man. Susquehanna List, 1696. His plantation was northward of that o f Rowland Ellis of Bryn Mawr. By deed, Sept. 5, 1698, he purchased fro m Wm. Howell, Edward Jones, John Roberts, Griffith Owen and Daniel Hum phrey, 409 acres of land that had been part of the Thomas Ellis tract . In Feb. 1709, Robert Lloyd and Lowry his wife, conveyed 154 1/2 a. t o Thos. bro. of Robert. 
LLOYD, Robert (I17802)
 
35
After Halfdan Whitleg's death, according tot he sagas, his son Eystein ruled Vestfold until a rival king named Skjold used his magic powers to have Eystein knocked overboard during a sailing expedition. Eystein's body was recovered from the sea and buried with great ceremony. Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders and Kiev
Ruled Vestfold 750-780
Eystein Halfdansson (Old Norse: Eysteinn Hálfdansson) was the son of Halfdan Hvitbeinn of the House of Yngling according to Heimskringla. He lived around 730, and inherited the throne of Romerike and Vestfold.
His wife was Hild, the daughter of the king of Vestfold, Erik Agnarsson. Erik had no son so Eystein inherited Vestfold.
Eystein went to Varna with some ships to pillage and carried away all livestock and other valuables. However, the king of Varna was king Skjöld who was a great warlock. Skjöld arrived at the beach and saw the sails of Eystein's ships. He waved his cloak and blew into it which caused a boom of one ship to swing and hit Eystein so that he fell overboard and drowned. His body was salvaged and buried in a mound.
Eystein was inherited by his son Halfdan the Mild.

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aft.er Halfdan Whitleg's death, according tot he sagas, his son Eystei n ruled Vestfold until a rival king named Skjold used his magic power s to have Eystein knocked overboard during a sailing expedition. Eyste in's body was recovered from the sea and buried with great ceremony. R oyal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders and Kiev
Ruled Vestfold 750-780
Eystein Halfdansson (Old Norse: Eysteinn Hálfdansson) was the son of H alfdan Hvitbeinn of the House of Yngling according to Heimskringla. H e lived around 730, and inherited the throne of Romerike and Vestfold.
His wife was Hild, the daughter of the king of Vestfold, Erik Agnarsso n. Erik had no son so Eystein inherited Vestfold.
Eystein went to Varna with some ships to pillage and carried away al l livestock and other valuables. However, the king of Varna was king S kjöld who was a great warlock. Skjöld arrived at the beach and saw th e sails of Eystein's ships. He waved his cloak and blew into it whic h caused a boom of one ship to swing and hit Eystein so that he fell o verboard and drowned. His body was salvaged and buried in a mound.
Eystein was inherited by his son Halfdan the Mild. 
HALFDANSSON, Eystein King of Vestfold (I16311)
 
36
Hamo Dapifer
Torigny-sur-Vire: Manche, arr. St-Lo, cant. Torigny.
An account of Hamo, who was son of Hamo Dentatus (slain at Val-es-Dunes in 1047), and who was dapifer both to the Conqueror and William Rufus and sheriff of Kent in 1086, is given, together with an account of his sons Hamo and Robert, by D. C. Douglas in "The Domesday Monachorum of Christ Church Canterbury", pp. 55-6, where the relevant authorities are cited. That Hamo dapifer and Hamo the Sheriff were undoubtedly one and the same person is proved by the Kentish returns of 1242-3 in 'The Book of Fees', pp. 654 et seq., when the lands held by the sheriff in 1086 were held by the earl of Gloucester, who was the heir of Hamo dapifer through the marriage of Robert earl of Gloucester with the daughter and heir of Robert, son of Hamo dapifer.
Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families 
Hamo de Crevecoeur, Sire de Cruelly (I12225)
 
37
William, his son and heir, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Alan de Thorton, and held by knight's service 15 libratas terrae, equivalent to 3,600 acres. He received knighthood at the hands of Philip de Ulceby, Sheriff of Lancashire, in 1256.
Memoirs of the Molineux Family p3
William Molyneux (known as William More Molyneux), most noble order of the Garter, 1349, K.b., Ribbon Garter blue, m Margaret de Thornton, dau. of Sir Allen de Thornton of the Co. Leicester. Buried in Canterbury Cathedral.

-- MERGED NOTE ------------




William, his son and heir, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Alan de T horton, and held by knight's service 15 libratas terrae, equivalent t o 3,600 acres. He received knighthood at the hands of Philip de Ulceby , Sheriff of Lancashire, in 1256.
Memoirs of the Molineux Family p3
William Molyneux (known as William More Molyneux), most noble order o f the Garter, 1349, K.b., Ribbon Garter blue, m Margaret de Thornton , dau. of Sir Allen de Thornton of the Co. Leicester. Buried in Canter bury Cathedral. 
Sir William de Molyneux (I11068)
 
38
"BRAIBOC

THIS family, so called from their chief seat at Braibrock, in the county of Northampton, descended from one INGEBALD, who by Albreda, one of the daughters and heirs to Ivo de Newmarch, had issue a son, called Robert May, but afterwards Robert de Braibrock, This Robert was one of King John's council, and obtained from him the manor of Corby, in the same county. Henry his son, married Christian, daughter and heir of Wischard Ledet, and Margery, his wife, and died the 18th of Henry III. leaving issue two sons, Wyschard (who assumed the surname of Ledet, from his mother, the heiress of that family), and John, who retained his paternal name, from whom descended Sir Reginald Braibrock, who, by Joan, daughter and heir of Sir John de la Pole, of Ashby, knight, by Joan, his wife, only daughter and heir of John lord Cobham, had issue, Joan, his heir, who married Sir Thomas Brook, lord Cobham, in her right. But Wiscard was the father of Walter, who had only two daughters, his heirs; viz.Alice, who married Sir William Latimer; and Christian, Sir John Latimer, brother to the said Sir William (vid. Latimer), from the last of whom, the Griffins, barons of Braybroke, are descended. ..."
[The Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England...by Christopher Banks] 
Henery de Baybrooke (I10874)
 
39
"BRAIBOC

THIS family, so called from their chief seat at Braibrock, in the county of Northampton, descended from one INGEBALD, who by Albreda, one of the daughters and heirs to Ivo de Newmarch, had issue a son, called Robert May, but afterwards Robert de Braibrock, This Robert was one of King John's council, and obtained from him the manor of Corby, in the same county. Henry his son, married Christian, daughter and heir of Wischard Ledet, and Margery, his wife, and died the 18th of Henry III. leaving issue two sons, Wyschard (who assumed the surname of Ledet, from his mother, the heiress of that family), and John, who retained his paternal name, from whom descended Sir Reginald Braibrock, who, by Joan, daughter and heir of Sir John de la Pole, of Ashby, knight, by Joan, his wife, only daughter and heir of John lord Cobham, had issue, Joan, his heir, who married Sir Thomas Brook, lord Cobham, in her right. But Wiscard was the father of Walter, who had only two daughters, his heirs; viz.Alice, who married Sir William Latimer; and Christian, Sir John Latimer, brother to the said Sir William (vid. Latimer), from the last of whom, the Griffins, barons of Braybroke, are descended. ..."
[The Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England...by Christopher Banks]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------




LEDET, Christian (I73135)
 
40
JEANde Dampierre, son of GUILLAUME [II] Seigneur de Dampierre & hiswife Marguerite II Ctss of Flanders and Hainaut (-1258).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Guillelmum Guodnem etIohannem" as the three sons of "Guillelmo domino de Dampetra [et] Margaretæ", specifying that "primo mortuo sine liberisin tornramento apud Trasegnies"[1356]. Matthew Paris specifies that his parents had "two others" when herecords the parentage of his brother Guillaume, but does not name the otherchildren[1357]. The Annales Blandinienses name "Iohannde Dampetra"as brother of Guy Count of Flanders, when recording the liberation of the twobrothers from captivity in Holland[1358]. He succeeded his father in 1231 as Seigneur de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube,de Sompuis et de Saint-Dizier, Vicomte de Troyes and Connétable de Champagne.  He was captured at the battle of West-Capelle 4 Jul 1253 by his half-brother Jean d'Avesnes Comte de Hainaut, released in early 1257.  In Jun 1256 he recognised that theofficer of Connétable de Champagne was not hereditary[1359]. 
m (9 Mar 1250) as herfirst marriage, LAURE de Lorraine,daughter of MATHIEU II Duke of Lorraine & his wife Catherine de Limbourg([1234/37]-after 3 May 1288).  She married secondly (after 29 Mar 1266) Guillaume [II] deVergy Seigneur de Mirebeau et d'Autrey, seneschal of Burgundy. 
Jean & his wife had two children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CHAMPAGNE%20NOBILITY.htm#_Toc394741403] 
Jean de Dampierre, Seigneur de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube, de Sompuis et de Saint-Dizier, Vicomte de Troyes and Connétable de Champagne (I60403)
 
41
THE SEIZURE OF "THE PEMBROOK" BY THE ACADIANS
Yarmouth Vanguard, Tuesday, January 23, 1990
There have been several seizures or attempts of seizures by the Acadians of vessels taking them into exile. In the accounts which have come down to us, tradition has at times confused one for the other. The best known of these seizures is that of the Pembroke. Its most reliable account comes from Placide Gaudet, the well known Acadian genealogist, who held it from a grandson of Pierre Belliveau, dit Piau, of Memramcook, this Pierre Belliveau being the brother of Charles Belliveau who conducted the seizure. I may note that they were brothers to Jean Belliveau, the ancestor of the Belliveaus of Belliveau's Cove; they were the sons of another Jean Belliveau and of Madeleine Melanson, of Port Royal.
While the authorities were making plans to expel the Acadians, they requested the Pembrook, a scow, to come to Annapolis Royal to pick up the Acadians to bring them into exile. On its way, it encountered a storm and broke its mainmast. Charles Belliveau, who was a ship contractor and a skillful navigator, was summoned to replace the mast as soon as possible with a new one. When he asked for his pay, he was just laughed at. He then threatened to cut the mast, that which was enough for the authorities to give him the amount of money that had been agreed upon.
Little did he know then that a few weeks later he would have to embark on that very vessel to be taken into exile. It happened on December, 8, 1755, at 5 o'clock in the morning. They were 226 Acadians in all, men, women and children, comprising 32 families. They were heading for South Carolina.
The armed sloop Baltimore escorted them up to New York. When the Pembrook was left to sail on its own, the Acadian prisoners started to make plans to seize it. It happened that they were allowed to go on deck for a short while half a dozen at a time. Six of the most capable men having taken their turn on the deck, among whom was Charles Belliveau, they were told after a while to go down the hole, when six others were asked to take their place. Instead of going down, those six who were already on deck seized their guards, and, with the help of the six others who had already come up, plus a few more who followed, it did not take them long to bound all eight members of the crew, hand and foot, the captain included.
That is when Charles Belliveau took the wheel. As there was a down wind, the vessel was turned around easily and it headed back north. The captain, in his shackles, hollered that he was going to break the mainmast, because it was weak. Charles Belliveau answered that he was lying, that he, himself, had made it and set it and that it could withstand any wind forever.
They were steering for the St. John River, N.B. A few days before they arrived, they landed the captain and the crew on the shore, probably in Maine. Luckily, all the way, they did not encounter any ships or vessels. They arrived in St. John January 8, 1756, having been on the Pembrook exactly one month.
They had been about another month in the vicinity of St. John, when, on February 9, an English vessel anchored in St. John harbour, flying the French flag. They said that they were from Louisbourg and that they were looking for a pilot to anchor further up the harbour. Notwithstanding that it was a trap, one of the Acadians fell into it. He had hardly gotten aboard the English vessel, which in reality was coming from Annapolis Royal, that the captain hoisted the English ensign and fired his cannon.
The Acadian families, who at first had taken refuge near the mouth of the river, had been sent further up where they could be more secure. When they heard the cannon, they ran to see what was taking place. That is when they noticed that the English vessel was going toward the Pembrook, surely to get hold of it. They had time to take away from it the firearms and other objects which had been left in it. They then set it on fire and started to fire on the English vessel, which was obliged to leave.
Feb. 18, 1756, Governor Lawrence wrote from Halifax to Governor Shirley of Massachusetts: "I lately sent a party of Rangers in a schooner to St. John's River. As the men were clothed like French soldiers and the schooner under French colours, I had hopes by such a deceit, not only to discover what it was doing there but to bring off some of the St. John's Indians. The Officer found there an English Ship, one of our Transports that sailed from Annapolis Royal with French inhabitants aboard bound for the Continent, but the inhabitants had risen upon the master and crew and carried the ship into that harbour, our people would have brought her off but by an accident they discovered themselves too soon, upon which the French set fire to the ship. They have brought back with them one French man, who says there have been no Indians there for some time ... he informs also that there is a French officer and about 20 men twenty-three miles up the river at place called St. Ann's," which was on the west side of what is now Fredericton. It could be that he informed Lawrence that those men were at 23 miles up the river to lead him purposely into error, because between St. John and Fredericton there are 85 miles.
Among other testimonies regarding this seizure, we have a letter dated July 31, 1756, from the "inhabitants of St. John River", sent to Father Daudin, former pastor at Annapolis, in which they tell him that they "revolted without any defense from the English, took charge of the vessel and have arrived happily at St. John River, from where we write this letter." Father Daudin did not see this letter, as he died suddenly in Paris the following month, while he was getting ready to return to Acadia.
Most of these Acadians who were on the Pembrook migrated to Quebec, where their descendants are still to be found. 
BELLIVEAU, Charles (I320)
 
42
THROCKMORTON, John (d.1445), of Throckmorton in Fladbury, Worcs. and Coughton, Warws.
Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J.S. Roskell, L. Clark, C. Rawcliffe., 1993
Available from Boydell and Brewer Biography Detail

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WORCESTERSHIRE Nov. 1414WORCESTERSHIRE1420WORCESTERSHIRE1422WORCESTERSHIRE1432WORCESTERSHIRE1433WORCESTERSHIRE1439Family and Education

s. and h. of Thomas Throckmorton*. m. shortly aft. 30 June 1409, Eleanor, da. and coh. of Guy Spyne* of Coughton, 2s. Thomas† and John†, 6da.
Offices Held


Commr. of inquiry, Worcs. Jan. 1414 (lollards), Glos., Herefs., Worcs., Salop, Staffs. July 1427 (concealments), Salop July 1428 (q. claims to Mold castle), Oxon., Berks., Glos., Worcs., Herefs., Salop, Staffs. July 1434 (concealments), Warws. Jan. 1439 (forestalling); to seize the lands of Sir John Mortimer, Worcs. Apr. 1416; of gaol delivery, Worcester July 1416, Nov. 1435; array, Worcs. Mar. 1419; to raise royal loans Nov. 1419, Warws., Worcs., Glos. July 1426, May 1428, Worcs. Mar. 1430, Glos. Mar. 1431, Glos., Worcs. Feb. 1434, Worcs. Mar. 1439, Nov. 1440, Aug. 1442; allocate tax rebates Dec. 1433, Apr. 1440; administer the oath against maintenance Jan. 1434; assess graduated income tax, London Jan. 1436; of oyer and terminer, Worcs. Jan. 1439; to treat for payment of a subsidy Feb. 1441.

J.p. Worcs. 16 Jan. 1414-d., Warws. 26 Oct. 1433-Dec. 1439.

Dep. sheriff, Worcs. (by appointment of Richard, earl of Warwick) 2 Nov. 1416-5 Sept. 1418, Mich. 1419-20 Oct. 1420, Mich. 1430-1.

Escheator, Worcs. 4 Nov. 1418-23 Nov. 1419.

Warwick chamberlain of the Exchequer Dec. 1418-d.1

Under treasurer of the Exchequer 19 July 1433-c. July 1443.2
Biography

Merely tenants of the bishops of Worcester in the manor of Throckmorton, the Throckmortons owed their rise in the early 15th century almost entirely to John’s legal and administrative ability and the family connexion with the earls of Warwick. It was the latter which afforded the opportunity for his marriage to Eleanor Spyne, whose father, a Beauchamp retainer, was a tenant of the earl’s in the south Warwickshire manor of Coughton. Throckmorton thus acquired a moiety of Coughton (and an agreement made by his widow and elder son with the heir to the other moiety was later to bring that into the family, too). In Worcestershire he inherited from his parents, besides Throckmorton, some property in Rous Lench, and his success as a lawyer enabled him to extend these holdings and to become a landowner of some substance. He managed to persuade Bishop Peverel of Worcester to alter the terms of his tenure of Throckmorton, so that from 1415 he held it for an annual fee farm of £12; and in 1436 he was to grant Bishop Bourgchier other property worth £12 a year in order to obtain the manor in fee simple. Over the years he acquired parcels of land elsewhere in Worcestershire, in Thorndon, Hull, Moor, Bishampton and Pinvin, and he purchased the manor of Spernall in Warwickshire.3
Throckmorton first came to public notice in 1413, when he was acting as legal advisor to Sir John Phelip*, a personal friend of the new King, Henry V: he attended the Worcestershire elections held that spring, when Phelip was one of those returned, and subsequently acted on his behalf as a feoffee of property in Kent. Throckmorton was himself elected to Parliament in November 1414 (curiously enough, his name was also recorded on the list of witnesses to the electoral indenture), and that same month he became one of Phelip’s trustees in the considerable and widespread estates of Grovebury priory, for the purpose of effecting an entail on Sir John and his young wife Alice, the only child of the then Speaker, Thomas Chaucer of Ewelme. Subsequently, in 1415, Phelip named Throckmorton as an executor of his will. In this, as in other respects, Throckmorton’s career bore close similarities to that of a contemporary Worcestershire lawyer, John Wood I*, and after Phelip’s death at Harfleur the two of them both became more intimately involved in the affairs of Richard, earl of Warwick. Throckmorton himself was formally retained by the earl on 28 Oct. 1416, then being granted by him an annuity of £7 13s.4d. from rents in Fladbury and Bishampton; furthermore, just five days later Warwick appointed him deputy sheriff of Worcestershire, where the Beauchamps held the shrievalty in fee. The accounts of the earl’s receiver-general (John Baysham) for 1417-18 reveal him as already the most prominent and active member of Warwick’s council, engaged on many administrative tasks on their lord’s behalf. Thus, he spent from October to December 1417 in London on business with other councillors; in January he was concerned with the vexed problem of the estates of Thomas, late Lord Berkeley, the earl’s father-in-law; and he travelled to Berkeley, Bristol, Bath and Southampton before embarking in April for Normandy in order to consult with Warwick at Caen. Clearly, Throckmorton had already become a trusted confidant of the earl. Warwick’s affairs involved him in much legal business, not only in the disputes over the Berkeley estates with Lord Thomas’s heir male, James, Lord Berkeley, and in its corollary, a lawsuit before the King’s Council brought by Sir Humphrey Stafford II* of Hooke (who supported Lord James) following his alleged eviction from Perton (Staffordshire) by Warwick’s retainers; but also, for example, in prosecuting suits against the bishop of Lincoln. In addition, during the earl’s absence in France, he often acted as his attorney for the presentation to ecclesiastical livings in the Beauchamp patronage. Significant of the closeness of his connexion with Earl Richard was Throckmorton’s appointment for life in December 1418 as Warwick chamberlain at the Exchequer, which earned him a fee of about £10 a year. In June 1421, when the earl was again in France, Throckmorton escorted the countess of Warwick on an urgent journey to Gloucestershire, returning with her to London after their business had been completed.4
The Beauchamp connexion was always a dominant feature in Throckmorton’s career, touching on many of his activities, and in the 1420s and 1430s he was frequently associated with other of the earl’s feoffees, retainers and estate staff, such as (Sir) William Mountfort I*, John Harewell*, Nicholas Rody* and Robert Andrew II*. In October 1418 he had obtained jointly with another Warwick retainer, William Wollashull*, the wardship of the lands of the late Thomas Crewe*, formerly chief steward of the earl’s estates, and in May 1421 he headed the list of electors in Worcestershire when Wollashull and John Wood were returned as Members of the Commons. He was accompanied to his own third Parliament, in 1422, by John Vampage† of Pershore, also counsel to Warwick; and in the following year he witnessed the earl’s grant of an annuity to Robert Stanshawe† (Member for Gloucestershire in the same Parliament), and was party, as one of the earl’s feoffees, to a marriage settlement on Richard Curson (later to be his fellow executor of Warwick’s will). Also in 1423 he and John Verney, clerk (then receiver-general of Warwick’s estates), provided securities for the payment of 500 marks by the young Thomas, Lord Roos, to procure the permission of the King’s Council to marry whom he chose. It is clear that they were acting in the Beauchamp interest, for Roos promptly married one of the earl’s daughters. In 1425 Throckmorton was admitted to the fraternity of St. Albans abbey as a member of Warwick’s entourage, and that same year he was made a trustee of the earl’s estates in eight counties. Other transactions brought him into contact with Warwick’s son-in-law John, Lord Talbot: in July 1426 he stood surety for Talbot when he was granted a royal wardship; and in the same month he, Talbot and Robert Andrew were party to recognizances in the sum of £3,000 by which they were bound to deliver to the keeper of the privy seal within six months the earl’s indenture of retainer for service overseas with a company of 400 men. During 1427 Throckmorton was active as the earl’s feoffee and attorney, notably in the patronage of Necton church; and his trusteeship of the estates of Grovebury priory for the late Sir John Phelip and his widow Alice, now countess of Salisbury, was no doubt instrumental in securing the sale in 1429 of their reversion after Alice’s death to his lord. Some time in the 1420s Earl Richard and his followers Throckmorton and Vampage sat as arbiters in the dispute between his aunt Joan, Lady Beauchamp of Abergavenny, and Sir Maurice Berkeley† of Uley, arising from Joan’s purchase of the former Botetourt estates. In 1430 the earl made Throckmorton a feoffee in the reversion of the Beauchamp manor of Wick by Pershore, to the use of Vampage, about the same time granting him an extra annuity of 20 marks. Throughout this period Throckmorton was a prominent figure in Worcestershire, where he attended the parliamentary elections of 1423, 1427 and 1431. His local standing must have owed much to the fact that from 1428 Warwick was ‘governor’ to the young King, Henry VI.5
Besides the many services he performed on behalf of Warwick and fellow members of the Beauchamp affinity (for instance, the executorship of John Baysham’s will), Throckmorton could not neglect his duties at the Exchequer. There were many perquisites to be gained there, and he had not been slow to profit from his knowledge of lucrative wardships coming into the Crown’s gift. Among the properties he secured for himself on Exchequer leases were the manors of Bickmarsh (Worcestershire) and Wolston (Warwickshire), as well as lands in Derbyshire belonging to the late Sir Philip Leche*. Another important concession, shared with Vampage and with his own maternal aunt Joan, widow of Sir William Clopton (formerly one of Warwick’s retainers), was the farm of the substantial estates in Shropshire and Wales which Lord Talbot’s henchman Hugh Burgh* had held in right of his wife. Throckmorton spent some time in Rouen with Earl Richard in 1432, but he also sat in the Parliament held at Westminster that year. During his fifth Parliament, that of 1433, he was named as a member of the committee appointed to oversee the administration of the will of Edmund, earl of March (d.1425), whose creditors were demanding satisfaction. He may have owed this particular appointment to his new position as under treasurer, an office held by nomination of Ralph, Lord Cromwell, which he was to combine with his chamberlainship for the next ten years. It is not surprising that many of the royal commissions to which Throckmorton was appointed concerned the collection of revenues due to the Crown, the raising of loans, and the discovery of concealments. From August 1433 until May 1435 he shared the farm of the temporalities of the see of Worcester during its vacancy, and, similarly, in 1438 he took responsibility for that of the vacant see of Chichester.6
Throckmorton maintained his proximity to the earl of Warwick right up to the latter’s death at Rouen (where he was acting Regent of France) on 30 Apr. 1439. Thus, in 1435 he had stood surety for Sir John (now Lord) Tiptoft* and John Merbury* when they were allowed to farm the lordship of Abergavenny, which, following the death of Joan, Lady Abergavenny, then pertained to the earl; and two years later he and others as the earl’s trustees were demised the keeping of the same. In the meantime, he had provided securities for Warwick at the Exchequer when he had taken out a lease of the late duke of Bedford’s property in the Forest of Dean. When Earl Richard made his will on 13 Aug. 1437 he named Throckmorton as an executor, and as a consequence, in May 1439, within a few days of the earl’s death, he began to serve as one of the committee, authorized by the King’s Council and headed by the duke of York, placed in control of the administration of the Beauchamp estates during the minority of the heir, Henry, to the use of the widowed countess and for the fulfilment of the will. Throckmorton’s last return to Parliament, later that same year, was probably prompted by the need for some representative of the Beauchamp interest in the Commons. During the session, on 18 Nov., he was made one of the Countess Isabel’s own feoffees in her dower estates for their administration during her illness and for the completion of her will; and he continued to act in that capacity following her death (which occurred shortly afterwards) and until his own. Such were the responsibilities with which Throckmorton was preoccupied in his later years.7
A lawyer of Throckmorton’s ability would naturally be often called upon to assist his neighbours and friends in their transactions and dealings. Thus, in the Parliaments of 1435, 1439 and 1442 he acted as proxy for the abbot of Evesham; and he took on the feoffeeship of the substantial estates both of Sir William Clopton and of Sir Hugh Cokesey†, the stepson of his earliest patron, Sir John Phelip. His position as under treasurer involved him in financial dealings with the monks at Westminster abbey, and also in the personal affairs of the treasurer, Lord Cromwell, including the trusteeship of estates belonging to the latter’s kinsman Robert Deincourt of Kirton (Lincolnshire), and his participation, as a feoffee-to-uses, in his purchase of the estates of John, Lord Fanhope. Throckmorton also performed services for the Lords Ferrers of Chartley, from whom he received an annual fee of £3 6s.8d.8
Throughout his life Throckmorton’s closest friends were the Worcestershire lawyers, John Vampage, William Wollashull and John Wood, while the marriages of his children connected him with several other gentry families. The husbands of his six daughters included Robert Russell† of Strensham—whose election to Parliament in 1435 he attended—John Rous, Thomas Wynslow† and Thomas, son of Sir Thomas Green† of Norton; while his younger son, John, was married to Isabel, daughter and heiress of Edward Bridges of Haresfield, whose wardship and marriage he had purchased at the Exchequer in 1436.9 Throckmorton was quite conventional in his attitude to the Church: he obtained papal licences to have a portable altar and his own confessor, and he and his wife became members of the fraternity of Evesham abbey. He died in London on 12 Apr. 1445, the same day as he made his will. Practical matters predominated: he insisted that his executors should give priority to the payment of debts and pointed out that since ‘j have ben all dayes of my life in my countree asoever in the world as the world asketh’ he had naturally been involved in many transactions and covenants and there might well come forward men with claims that he had not faithfully performed his tasks; if anyone could prove his case he was to have redress. Then, too, if it was shown that he had received fees without providing services the dissatisfied party was to be recompensed. The will’s stipulations attest both the local and the London side of the testator’s life: he left £2 to Worcester cathedral and similar sums to two houses of friars there; in London the four orders of friars were to receive £1 each, a like sum was to go towards the building fund at St. Bridget’s in Fleet Street, and 6s. was granted to each of the prisons in the City. Bequests of money (varying in amount from £20 to 100 marks) were made to his six sons-in-law, but as executors he named his wife Eleanor, his elder son Thomas (knight of the shire for Worcestershire in the Parliament then in session), and Rawlyn Ingoldsby (who was to receive £20 for his labour). Although Throckmorton had ceased to be under treasurer when Ralph Butler, Lord Sudeley, had succeeded Cromwell two years previously, he nevertheless chose Sudeley as supervisor ‘for grete affians and trust that I have hadde in his lordeship and shall have aftir my deth’. He was buried in the church at Fladbury in a large altar tomb, which also accommodated his parents and, later, his widow and elder son.10
Throckmorton’s widow procured letters of confraternity from the prior and chapter of Christ Church, Canterbury, for herself and her sons, and Throckmorton was accorded the ‘beneficium capituli’ of inclusion in its martyrology. In 1448 Eleanor obtained letters patent, granted in consideration of Throckmorton’s loyal service to each of the three Lancastrian kings, to found chantries at Fladbury and in the monastic churches of Pershore and Evesham, in which prayers were to be said for the King and queen, and masses celebrated for the souls of her late husband, his parents, Henry IV, Henry V and Queen Katherine. Thomas Throckmorton continued in the service of the earls of Warwick, acting for Richard Neville as steward of his Worcestershire estates in 1451 and receiving an annuity of £10 as his gift from then until 1457. He also held office as steward of the estates of Bishop Carpenter of Worcester, with whom he had a ‘league of friendship’. By the end of the reign, however, he was employed as attorney-general to Edward, prince of Wales, and both he and his brother, John, chose to support the Lancastrian regime rather than Neville and his confederates, John being beheaded as a consequence immediately after the Yorkist victory at Mortimer’s Cross.11
Ref Volumes: 1386-1421
Author: L. S. Woodger


Notes

1. E403/638 m. 16.
2.EHR, lxxii. 673; PRO List ‘Exchequer Offs.’ 197.
3.Misc. Gen. et Her. (ser. 5), vi. 232-3, 235, 240-4; W. Dugdale, Warws. ii. 749-50; VCH Warws. iii. 80-81, 173; CPR, 1413-16, p. 340; 1436-41, p. 46; CPL, vi. 457, vii. 85; VCH Worcs. iii. 499.
4. C219/11/2, 5; CPR, 1408-13, p. 470; 1413-16, p. 259; PCC 43 Marche; CCR, 1413-19, pp. 234-5; 1419-22, p. 28; Egerton Roll 8773; C. Ross, Estates and Finances Richard Beauchamp (Dugdale Soc. occ. pprs. xii), 11-14; Trans. Bristol and Glos. Arch. Soc. lxx. 88; T.R. Nash, Worcs. ii. 355, 451; F. Blomefield, Norf. vi. 111.
5.CFR, xiv. 255; C219/12/5, 13/2, 5; CPR, 1422-9, pp. 201, 350; 1446-52, p. 22; CCR, 1422-9, pp. 127, 277, 455; 1429-35, pp. 226-7; Warws. Feet of Fines (Dugdale Soc. xviii), nos. 2539, 2555; Blomefield, vi. 53; C1/19/6; Wm. Salt Arch. Soc. n.s. vii. 251; SC12/18/45 f. 1; Add. Ch. 20432; Dorset Feet of Fines 306; Cott. Nero DVII, f. 151.
6.Early Lincoln Wills ed. Gibbons, 156-7; Reg. Chichele, ii. 504; VCH Warws. v. 190; CFR, xv. 38, 163, 225; xvi. 21, 116-17, 171; xvii. 19; RP, iv. 471; CCR, 1422-9, p. 339.
7.CFR, xvi. 254, 264, 314, 342; xvii. 122; PCC 19 Rous; Dugdale, 247; CPR, 1436-41, pp. 279, 359-60, 408, 429; Misc. Gen. et Her. 232.
8. SC10/49/2427, 2432, 50/2460; Wm. Salt Arch. Soc. xi. 226; CFR, xiv. 276, xix. 278-9, 280-1; DKR, xxxvii (pt. 2), 156-7, 710; CPR, 1416-22, p. 247; 1436-41, pp. 422, 495, 553; 1441-6, pp. 237, 267, 391; CAD, iii. C3722; CCR, 1435-41, p. 476; 1441-7, pp. 51, 218-19, 222-3, 229; HMC De L’Isle and Dudley, i. 18; E163/7/31 pt. 1.
9.CPR, 1436-41, p. 23; 1441-6, p. 344; 1452-61, p. 288; Warws. Feet of Fines no. 2603; CCR, 1435-41, pp. 145, 346-7; CAD, vi. C5242; CFR, xvi. 304, 321; CP25(1)260/27/30; C219/14/5.
10.CPL, vii. 325, 328; Add. 28564 f. 31; PCC 31 Luffenham; CFR, xvii. 301; VCH Worcs. iii. 361; Trans. Worcs. Arch. Soc. iv. 140-8.
11.CPR, 1446-52, p. 168; HMC 9th Rep. 114; HP, 1439-1509 ed. Wedgwood, Biogs. 851-3; Warws. RO, Throckmorton mss, box 59 no. 8.
[http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/member/throckmorton-john-1445] 
THROCKMORTON, Sir John Lord of Throckmorton and Coughton (I12054)
 
43
AMEDEE de Maurienne, son of HUMBERT II "le Renforcé" Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie and his wife Gisèle de Bourgogne [Comté] (Montmélian [1095]-Nicosia 30 Aug 1148). "Amedeus comes" donated property to Saint-Jean de Maurienne, for the soul of "patris sui Uberti comtis", with the consent of "Gisla matre et fratribus eius Guillelmo atque Umberto", by charter dated 21 Oct 1104, witnessed by "Odo de Camera et frater eius Amedeus, Esmio de Camera et frater eius Bernardus, Aymo de Bocsosello, Guillelmus de Rossilione". "Amedeus…comes et fratres mei, unacum genitrice nostra Gisla" donated property to the church of Belley, for the soul of "patris nostri Humberti comitis", by undated charter. He succeeded in 1109 as AMEDEE III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie. "Amedeus…comes et fratres mei, unacum genitrice nostra Gisla" donated property to the church of Belley "per nostros advocatos…comitem Aimonem Genevensem et Widonem de Mirabello", for the soul of "patris nostri Humberti comitis", by undated charter. The emperor recognised his title as Count of the Holy Roman Empire in 1111. Comte Amédée arranged the marriage of his sister to Louis VI King of France, consolidating the close relations established by his father with France. Lay-abbot of Saint-Maurice d'Agaune, until 1116. "Guido Viennensis archiepiscopus" (who was his maternal uncle) addressed a letter to "nepoti suo Amedeo comiti" dated [1115]. "Amedeus filius quondam Humberti comitis" confirmed the possessions of the abbey of Santa Maria di Pinerolo by charter dated 1 Mar 1131, witnessed by "Humbertus de Buzosel et Aymo frater eius, Villelmus de Camera…". He recovered the county of Turin, lost by his father. "Comes Amedeus…cum uxore sua Adeleida comitissa" confirmed the rights of the monastery of "S. Justi in villa Volveria" by charter dated 27 Jul 1134, witnessed by "Umbertus de Bocsosello, Aimo de Brianzone…". "A. comes et marchio cum uxore sua M." donated property to the monastery of Ripalta, with the support of "eorum filio Umberto", by charter dated 9 Jan 1137. "Palatinus Comes Amedeus" donated property to the monastery of Locedio "in terra Willelmi Marchionis fratris sui" [his uterine brother] by charter dated 30 Jul 1137. "Amedeus comes et marchio" donated revenue from Conflens to the archbishop of Tarantasia by charter dated 28 Feb 1139. "Dominus Amedeus comes et marchio et frater eius Raynaldus" granted rights to the archbishop of Tarantasia, with the consent of "Aymone vicecomite, fratribus suis Gunterio, Willienco, Aymerico", by charter dated to [1140]. The first known use of the white cross on a red background as the arms of the House of Savoy was in a charter dated 1143. "Amedeus comes et marchio et Maies comitissa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" donated property to the monastery of Saint-Maurice by charter dated 30 Mar 1143. "Amedeus comes et marchio" confirmed donations to Saint-Sulpice en Bugey, for the soul of "filii mei Humberti", by charter dated to [1148], which also names "uxore mea Matildi", confirmed by "Aalasia comitissa de Bello Joco…cum filio meo Guichardo". "Amedeus comes et marchio et Majes comitissa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" confirmed the rights of the monastery of Saint-Maurice d´Agaune by charter dated 30 Mar 1148. He accompanied his nephew Louis VII King of France on crusade but died in Cyprus. The Continuator of Sigebert records that "Amadeus comes Maurianensis" died "in Cipro insula" in 1148. He married firstly ([1120/23]) ADELAIDE, daughter of --- (-after Jul 1134). "Comes Amedeus…cum uxore sua Adeleida comitissa" confirmed the rights of the monastery of "S. Justi in villa Volveria" by charter dated 27 Jul 1134, witnessed by "Umbertus de Bocsosello, Aimo de Brianzone…". Europäische Stammtafeln shows the single marriage of Comte Amédée III, to Mathilde d'Albon, in 1123. Given the likely birth dates of Alix de Savoie, oldest daughter of Comte Amédée, and of Mathilde d'Albon (see below), it is unlikely that Mathilde was the mother of Alix. A first marriage of Comte Amédée is therefore highly probable. Palluel shows Comte Amédée III's first wife as Gertrude de Lorraine, daughter of Simon I Duke of Lorraine. This can be dismissed as incorrect. Neither Europäische Stammtafeln nor Poull refer to any such daughter of Duke Simon. In addition, bearing in mind that Duke Simon himself was probably born in 1096, it is chronologically impossible for any daughter of his to have given birth to a child in [1123/25]. Her marriage date is estimated based on the estimated birth date of the couple's supposed elder daughter, Alix de Savoie, as shown below. The origin of Adelaide is unknown. However, according to Europäische Stammtafeln, her supposed daughter Alix was Dame de Châteauneuf-en-Valromey, de Virieu-le-Grand, et de Cordon-en-Bugey. Further research to trace the ownership of these fiefdoms may provide clues about the origin of Adelaide. He married secondly ([Jul 1134/1135]) MATHILDE d'Albon, daughter of GUIGUES [V] Comte d'Albon [Viennois] and his wife Regina [Matilda] --- ([1112/16]-after 30 Mar 1148). "A. comes et marchio cum uxore sua M." donated property to the monastery of Ripalta, with the support of "eorum filio Umberto", by charter dated 9 Jan 1137. The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records that "Amedeo…secundo, Mauriennæ comiti" married "Guigona Crassi filia". The identity of her father is clarified as the passage also names "Humbertus minor Crassi filius" and his appointment ot "archiepiscopatum Viennensem". Europäische Stammtafeln shows a single marriage of Comte Amédée III, to Mathilde d'Albon, in 1123. It is more likely that Mathilde was his second wife, as explained above, especially if her likely birth date range is correct. According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Mathilde's parents were married in [1106-1110]. The same table shows that Mathilde's two brothers, Guigues and Humbert, were mentioned in 1110, indicating that the marriage must have taken place during the earlier part of this date range. A third child, Gersende d'Albon, must also have born during the early years of her parents' marriage as she herself gave birth to two sons before (or shortly after) the death of her husband in Oct 1129. Assuming all these dates are correct, the timescale is tight for the birth of a fourth child, Mathilde, before 1112 at the earliest. This would make it impossible for Mathilde to have been the mother of Comte Amédée's oldest daughter Alix. "Amedeus comes et marchio et Maies comitissa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" donated property to the monastery of Saint-Maurice by charter dated 30 Mar 1143. "Amedeus comes et marchio" confirmed donations to Saint-Sulpice en Bugey, for the soul of "filii mei Humberti", by charter dated to [1148], which also names "uxore mea Matildi", confirmed by "Aalasia comitissa de Bello Joco…cum filio meo Guichardo". "Amedeus comes et marchio et Majes comitissa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" confirmed the rights of the monastery of Saint-Maurice d´Agaune by charter dated 30 Mar 1148.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAVOY.htm]

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AMEDEE de Maurienne, son of HUMBERT II "le Renforcé" Comte de Maurienn e et de Savoie and his wife Gisèle de Bourgogne [Comté] (Montmélian [1 095]-Nicosia 30 Aug 1148). "Amedeus comes" donated property to St. Jea n de Maurienne, for the soul of "patris sui Uberti comtis", with the c onsent of "Gisla matre et fratribus eius Guillelmoatque Umberto", by c harter dated 21 Oct 1104, witnessed by "Odo de Camera et frater eius A medeus, Esmio de Camera et frater eius Bernardus, Aymode Bocsosello, G uillelmus de Rossilione". "Amedeus…comes et fratres mei, unacum genitr ice nostra Gisla" donated property to the church of Belley, for the so ul of "patris nostri Humberti comitis", by undated charter. He succeed ed in 1109 as AMEDEE III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie. "Amedeus…com es et fratres mei, unacum genitrice nostra Gisla" donated property t o the church of Belley "per nostros advocatos…comitem Aimonem Genevens em et Widonem de Mirabello", for the soul of "patris nostri Humberti c omitis", by undated charter. The emperor recognised his title as Coun t of the Holy Roman Empire in 1111. Comte Amédée arranged the marriag e of his sister to Louis VI King of France, consolidating the close re lations established by his father with France. Lay-abbot of St. Mauric e d'Agaune, until 1116. "Guido Viennensis archiepiscopus" (who was hi s maternal uncle) addressed a letter to "nepoti suo Amedeo comiti" dat ed [1115]. "Amedeus filius quondam Humberti comitis" confirmed the pos sessions of the abbey of Santa Maria di Pinerolo by charter dated 1 Ma r 1131, witnessed by "Humbertus de Buzosel et Aymofrater eius, Villelm us de Camera…". He recovered the county of Turin, lost by his father . "Comes Amedeus…cum uxore sua Adeleida comitissa" confirmed the right s of the monastery of "S. Justi in villa Volveria" by charter dated 2 7 Jul 1134, witnessed by "Umbertus de Bocsosello, Aimode Brianzone…" . "A. comes et marchio cum uxore sua M." donated property to the monas tery of Ripalta, with the support of "eorum filio Umberto", by charte r dated 9 Jan 1137. "Palatinus Comes Amedeus" donated property to th e monastery of Locedio "in terra Willelmi Marchionis fratris sui" [hi s uterine brother] by charter dated 30 Jul 1137. "Amedeus comes et mar chio" donated revenue from Conflens to the archbishop of Tarantasia b y charter dated 28 Feb 1139. "Dominus Amedeus comes et marchio et frat er eius Raynaldus" granted rights to the archbishop of Tarantasia, wit h the consent of "Aymone vicecomite, fratribus suis Gunterio, Willienc o, Aymerico", by charter dated to [1140]. The first known use of the w hite cross on a red background as the arms of the House of Savoy was i n a charter dated 1143. "Amedeus comes et marchio et Maies comitissa u xor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" donated property to the monastery o f St. Maurice by charter dated 30 Mar 1143. "Amedeus comes et marchio " confirmed donations to St. Sulpice en Bugey, for the soul of "fili i mei Humberti", by charter dated to [1148], which also names "uxore m ea Matildi", confirmed by "Aalasia comitissa de Bello Joco…cum filio m eo Guichardo". "Amedeus comes et marchio et Majes comitissa uxor eiu s et Umbertus eorum filius" confirmed the rights of the monastery of S t. Maurice d´Agaune by charter dated 30 Mar 1148. He accompanied his n ephew Louis VII King of France on crusade but died in Cyprus. The Cont inuator of Sigebert records that "Amadeus comes Maurianensis" died "i n Cipro insula" in 1148. He married firstly ([1120/23]) ADELAIDE, daug hter of --- (-aft.er Jul 1134). "Comes Amedeus…cum uxore sua Adeleid a comitissa" confirmed the rights of the monastery of "S. Justi in vil la Volveria" by charter dated 27 Jul 1134, witnessed by "Umbertus de B ocsosello, Aimode Brianzone…". Europäische Stammtafeln shows the singl e marriage of Comte Amédée III, to Mathilde d'Albon, in 1123. Given th e likely birth dates of Alix de Savoie, oldest daughter of Comte Amédé e, and of Mathilde d'Albon (see below), it is unlikely that Mathilde w as the mother of Alix. A first marriage of Comte Amédée is therefore h ighly probable. Palluel shows Comte Amédée III's first wife as Gertrud e de Lorraine, daughter of Simon I Duke of Lorraine. This can be dismi ssed as incorrect. Neither Europäische Stammtafeln nor Poull refer t o any such daughter of Duke Simon. In addition, bearing in mind that D uke Simon himself was probably born in 1096, it is chronologically imp ossible for any daughter of his to have given birth to a child in [112 3/25]. Her marriage date is estimated based on the estimated birth dat e of the couple's supposed elder daughter, Alix de Savoie, as shown be low. The origin of Adelaide is unknown. However, according to Europäis che Stammtafeln, her supposed daughter Alix was Dame de Châteauneuf-en -Valromey, de Virieu-le-Grand, et de Cordon-en-Bugey. Further researc h to trace the ownership of these fiefdoms may provide clues about th e origin of Adelaide. He married secondly ([Jul 1134/1135]) MATHILde d 'Albon, daughter of GUIGUES [V] Comte d'Albon [Viennois] and his wif e Regina [Matilda] --- ([1112/16]-aft.er 30 Mar 1148). "A. comes et ma rchio cum uxore sua M." donated property to the monastery of Ripalta , with the support of "eorum filio Umberto", by charter dated 9 Jan 11 37. The Aymari Rivalli de Allobrogibus records that "Amedeo…secundo, M auriennæ comiti" married "Guigona Crassi filia". The identity of her f ather is clarified as the passage also names "Humbertus minor Crassi f ilius" and his appointment ot "archiepiscopatum Viennensem". Europäisc he Stammtafeln shows a single marriage of Comte Amédée III, to Mathild e d'Albon, in 1123. It is more likely that Mathilde was his second wif e, as explained above, especially if her likely birth date range is co rrect. According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Mathilde's parents were m arried in [1106-1110]. The same table shows that Mathilde's two brothe rs, Guigues and Humbert, were mentioned in 1110, indicating that the m arriage must have taken place during the earlier part of this date ran ge. A third child, Gersende d'Albon, must also have born during the ea rly years of her parents' marriage as she herself gave birth to two so ns before (or shortly aft.er) the death of her husband in Oct 1129. As suming all these dates are correct, the timescale is tight for the bir th of a fourth child, Mathilde, before 1112 at the earliest. This woul d make it impossible for Mathilde to have been the mother of Comte Amé dée's oldest daughter Alix. "Amedeus comes et marchio et Maies comitis sa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" donated property to the monaste ry of St. Maurice by charter dated 30 Mar 1143. "Amedeus comes et marc hio" confirmed donations to St. Sulpice en Bugey, for the soul of "fil ii mei Humberti", by charter dated to [1148], which also names "uxor e mea Matildi", confirmed by "Aalasia comitissa de Bello Joco…cum fili o meo Guichardo". "Amedeus comes et marchio et Majes comitissa uxor ei us et Umbertus eorum filius" confirmed the rights of the monastery o f St. Maurice d´Agaune by charter dated 30 Mar 1148. 
Amadeus III, de Maurienne, Comte de Savoie (I5706)
 
44 Shahpur III appointed Khosrov, a descendant of the Arsacid house, as King of Armenia (385-391), and gave him a sister in marriage. It was not long, however, until Khosrov was dethroned and placed in confinement at Ctesiphon, apparently for too great assertiveness of his royal authority. He had bestowed the Patriarchal power upon Sahak, son of Nerses and well known for his sympathy with the West. He had also restored many feudal lords to their former status of nobility. Vramshapouh, brother of Khosrov, to whom Shahpur now entrusted the rule of Armenia, was not honored with the title of King until ten years later, when Yazdegert I sat upon the throne at Ctesiphon.
On the death of Vramshapouh in 419, the Katholikos visited the Persian court and obtained Yazdegert's consent to the release of Khosrov from his long imprisonment in the fortress of "Oblivion," and his reinstallation upon the Armenian throne.
History of Armenia: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Asia/Armenia/_Texts/KURARM/19*.html
 
Khosrov IV, King of East Armenia (I25761)
 
45 Alan, son of Roland, as he is constantly styled, succeeded his father as Constable, and also in the lordship of Galloway, with his other large domains in Scotland and England. He is first named in 1196 in connection with lands at Teinford, co. Northampton, which apparently he held apart from his father. After his father's death in 1200, he constantly appears as a witness in royal charters, and apparently took his share in public affairs. He and his mother had, in 1212, an action relatin to Whissendine and Bosegate, lands in Northamptonshire, as to which it was disputer whether Richard de Morville was seised in 1174, and whether he was dispossessed in consequence of the war in that year. The latest act of Alan's father was to offer 500 merks to obtain an assize to settle the question, but it was only determined on 29 April 1212, or a little later, when a jury found that Richard was so seised and was disseised as stated; later Alan and his mother were called to pay so much into the treasury.
In July of the same year, partly, no doubt, as kinsman, and also as a Scottish baron holding large fiefs in England, he was asked by King John for assistance in the latter's invasion of Ireland. The King begged Alan to send as soon as possible to Chester a thousand of his best and most active Galwegians before Sunday 19 August. For this, and no doubt other services, King John granted him, in 1213, a large number of fiefs in Ireland, which were assigned to him or his agenst, by John, Bishop of Norwich, in a formal assembly at Carrickfergus. To these were added rights of forest and privileges of fairs and markets. The grants were repeated and confirmed two years later, on 27 June 1215. This was a few days after the granting, at Runnymede, of the Great Charter, Alan of Galloway being named among those present as one of the great barons of England. It is not certain what part Alan played in the war which followed later in 1215, whether he sided with the English barons who opposed King John or with the King of Scots, but the destruction of the monastery of Holmcoltram is usually assigned to the ravages of the Galwegians who followed Alexander II in his invasion of England.
It was certainly in 1215 that, according to Fordun, Alan was secured in his Constableship by the new King of Scots. Soon after the accession of King Henry III to the English throne he summoned King Alexander and also Alan of Galloway to deliver up the Castle of Carlisle, and in the beginning of 1219 Alan had a safe-conduct to do homage for his lands in England, which meanwhile were taken in King Henry's hands. Alan was present at York on 15 June 1220, and swore to observe King Alexander's oaht that he would marry Joanna, the eldest sister of King Henry, and in obedience to a letter from King Henry he made his own personal homage at the same time. The following day his lands were ordered to be restored to him, including his Irish estates. Later he was in active service with his galleys crusing off the coast of Ireland in opposition to Hugh de Lacy, then in rebellion. Lacy submitted to King Henry in 1224, and in the following year Alan was permitted to lease his lands in Ireland and place tenants on them. In October 1229 he was summoned to go abroad with King Henry. One of the latest references to him in English records is a permit to him to send a ship to Ireland to by victuals, between Candlemas and Michaelmas 1232.
His appearance in Scottish record are not so numerous, being chiefly confined to grants or other benefaction to religious houses. He died in 1234, and was buried in the Abbey of Dundrennan.
He married, first, a lady name unknown, said to be daughter of Reginald, Lord ot eh Isles, by whom he had two daughters; secondly, in 1209, Margaret, eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, by whom he had a son and two daughters; thirdly in 1228, a daughter of Hugh de Lacy, of Ireland, by whom he had no issue. The Scots Peerage IV:139-141
Alan FitzRoland (c.1175-1234) was the last of the MacFergus dynasty of quasi-independent Lords of Galloway. He was also hereditary Constable of Scotland. He was the son of Lochlann, Lord of Galloway and Helen de Moreville. His date of birth is uncertain, but he was born in or before 1175, as he is considered an adult in 1196.
He married first an unnamed daughter of John, Baron of Pontefract and Constable of Chester; they had two daughters, one named Helen (married Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester) and another who died in 1213. His first wife was dead or divorced by 1209 when he married Margaret of Huntingdon, great granddaughter of David I of Scotland. By this marriage he had two more daughters: Dervorguilla of Galloway, ancestress of John Balliol, and Christina of Galloway. Alan married his last wife, Rohese de Lacy, in 1229, she being the daughter of Hugh de Lacy, 1st Earl of Ulster. By one of his marriages he had a son, Thomas, who predeceased his father (not to be confused with his illegitimate half-brother, also named Thomas).
In 1212 Alan responded to a summons from King John I of England by sending 1,000 troops to join the war against the Welsh. In this year he also sent one of his daughters to England as a hostage. She died in 1213 in the custody of her maternal uncle. Alan is listed as one of the 16 men who counseled King John regarding the Magna Carta.
Alan, like his forebears, maintained a carefully ambiguous relationship with both the English and Scottish states, acting as a vassal when it suited his purpose and as an independent monarch when he could get away with it. His considerable sea power allowed him to supply fleets and armies to aid the English King John in campaigns both in France and Ireland.
In 1228 he invaded the Isle of Man and fought a sea-war against Norway in support of Reginald, Prince of Man, who was engaged in a fratricidal struggle with his brother Olaf for possession of the island.
Alan died in 1234 and is buried at Dundrennan Abbey in Galloway. With Alan's death his holdings were divided between his three daughters and their husbands. A popular attempt was made within Galloway to establish his illegitimate son, Thomas, as ruler, but this failed, and Galloway's period as an independent political entity came to an end.
wwww.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan,_Lord_of_Galloway

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Alan, son of Roland, as he is constantly styled, succeeded his fathe r as Constable, and also in the lordship of Galloway, with his other l arge domains in Scotland and England. He is first named in 1196 in con nection with lands at Teinford, co. Northampton, which apparently he h eld apart from his father. aft.er his father's death in 1200, he const antly appears as a witness in royal charters, and apparently took hi s share in public affairs. He and his mother had, in 1212, an action r elatin to Whissendine and Bosegate, lands in Northamptonshire, as to w hich it was disputer whether Richard de Morville was seised in 1174, a nd whether he was dispossessed in consequence of the war in that year . The latest act of Alan's father was to offer 500 merks to obtain a n assize to settle the question, but it was only determined on 29 Apri l 1212, or a little later, when a jury found that Richard was so seise d and was disseised as stated; later Alan and his mother were called t o pay so much into the treasury.
In July of the same year, partly, no doubt, as kinsman, and also a s a Scottish baron holding large fiefs in England, he was asked by Kin g John for assistance in the latter's invasion of Ireland. The King be gged Alan to send as soon as possible to Chester a thousand of his bes t and most active Galwegians before Sunday 19 August. For this, and n o doubt other services, King John granted him, in 1213, a large numbe r of fiefs in Ireland, which were assigned to him or his agenst, by Jo hn, Bishop of Norwich, in a formal assembly at Carrickfergus. To thes e were added rights of forest and privileges of fairs and markets. Th e grants were repeated and confirmed two years later, on 27 June 1215 . This was a few days aft.er the granting, at Runnymede, of the Grea t Charter, Alan of Galloway being named among those present as one o f the great barons of England. It is not certain what part Alan playe d in the war which followed later in 1215, whether he sided with the E nglish barons who opposed King John or with the King of Scots, but th e destruction of the monastery of Holmcoltram is usually assigned to t he ravages of the Galwegians who followed Alexander II in his invasio n of England.
It was certainly in 1215 that, according to Fordun, Alan was secured i n his Constableship by the new King of Scots. Soon aft.er the accessio n of King Henry III to the English throne he summoned King Alexander a nd also Alan of Galloway to deliver up the Castle of Carlisle, and i n the beginning of 1219 Alan had a safe-conduct to do homage for his l ands in England, which meanwhile were taken in King Henry's hands. Ala n was present at York on 15 June 1220, and swore to observe King Alexa nder's oaht that he would marry Joanna, the eldest sister of King Henr y, and in obedience to a letter from King Henry he made his own person al homage at the same time. The following day his lands were ordered t o be restored to him, including his Irish estates. Later he was in act ive service with his galleys crusing off the coast of Ireland in oppos ition to Hugh de Lacy, then in rebellion. Lacy submitted to King Henr y in 1224, and in the following year Alan was permitted to lease his l ands in Ireland and place tenants on them. In October 1229 he was summ oned to go abroad with King Henry. One of the latest references to hi m in English records is a permit to him to send a ship to Ireland to b y victuals, between Candlemas and Michaelmas 1232.
His appearance in Scottish record are not so numerous, being chiefly c onfined to grants or other benefaction to religious houses. He died i n 1234, and was buried in the Abbey of Dundrennan.
He married, first, a lady name unknown, said to be daughter of Reginal d, Lord ot eh Isles, by whom he had two daughters; secondly, in 1209 , Margaret, eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, by whom he h ad a son and two daughters; thirdly in 1228, a daughter of Hugh de Lac y, of Ireland, by whom he had no issue. 
Alan of Galloway, Lord of Galloway (I9116)
 
46 The time was the early 1930's and Bud was now staying with his sister, Blanche and her husband Joseph Nemeth in Beloit, Wisconsin. Joseph was working at the Beloit Iron Works and was able to find work for Bud. Joseph then made it possible for Bud to enter into a four-year apprenticeship as a pattern and model maker there at the Iron Works.

A young fellow was always looking for a little extra cash. It was wintertime and the local town shops needed their sidewalks shoveled of snow. One of those businesses was the Beuty Shop and Bud's sister knew the owner.

Esther, having graduated from high school and then Beauty School, was a beautician at this local shop. Bud seemed like a nice young man . . . and Esther was a pretty young woman. As the story was told, Bud asked Esther if she would like to go to the movie theatre with him this one evening. She said yes!

Mom had a date that evening though with Arnie Morse, one of the town's firemen, but she told Arnie that her mother was ill and that she would have to stay home to attend to her.

As Bud and Esther were getting settled into their seats before the movie started, someone tapped on Esther's shoulder. She turned to see who was there. It was Arnie Morse . . . "Your mother must have made a miraculous recovery," he said. Arnie, with his date, Thelma, and Esther with Bud, enjoyed the fun of the evening and remained friends for the rest of their lives.

After fisishing his apprenticeship, Bud and Esther were married on September 5, 1936. Early on that Saturday, they said their vows in St. Peter's Catholic Church rectory. At that time, because Bud was not a Catholic, they could not be married in the church. They then had a breakfast reception with family and friends.

******

WHO DONE IT ?
Early Spring 1967 , Bob & Rita's apartment Las Vegas, Nevada

The cake was mixed and placed in the oven. The chocolate smelled so good as the mixture rose high and light. The frosting was blended and tasted for the right consistency. All was completed for the cooled cake, desert befitting a King, and as the evening drew late, everyone longed for that second piece before bedtime, with a tall glass of milk.

The apartment was full for the weekend. Mom and Dad were in town visiting for a few days, anxious to play with their little grand daughter and pull a few handles on those 'one arm bandits.'

Finally, as bedtime neared, we all decided to raid the refrigerator for that long awaited piece of chocolate cake. All stood with forks and plates in hand, as I opened the refrigerator door. Who would have believed it? Someone had eaten the frosting from one whole slice of cake.

There were four adult people in the house, and one little baby. Three of these people were known, notorious frosting stealers, but who did it this time? I said it was dad. Dad said it was me. Bob thought it was mom and she said it was Bob. Everyone denied being quilty. The mystery continued. . .

As we gathered each passing year, the same question would be asked, "Who ate the frosting off the cake?" Each in turn would accuse the others.

With not too many days left of my father's life, and trying to make him laugh, I asked this question once again, "Who ate the frosting off the cake?" Seventeen years had passed and still the mystery remained unsolved. He answered me with a smile and a twinkle in his eyes, "It wasn't me."

Finally, the quilty party stepped forward and admitted stealing that gooey, fudge frosting off the slice of chocolate cake, so many years ago. It was Bob Bigony. This increased the number of notorious frosting stealers now to four. Case solved . . . 
KEEFER, Harmon Godfried (I52434)
 
47 Willelm Luvel. William Lovel, lord of Ivry-la-Bataille, son of Ascelin Goel of Ivry and Isabel de Breteuil. A rebel against Henry I, he married, c 1112, Matilda sister of Waleran count of Meulan, IN 1124 he made his peace with Henry and was granted a large estate in England. He submitted to Geoffrey of Anjou and attested charters of Henry of Normandy in the 1150s. He died between 1166 and 1170. He left issue Waleran (his heir in Normandy), Robert (his heir in England), Isabel and Helisend. See Comp. Peer. viii, 208 note c. Held one fee in chief at Docking, Norfolk, in 1166. In 1242/3 John Luvel held one fee of the king in chief at Docking, Southmere and Titchwell (Fees, 912). [Domesday Descendants p1017]
WILLIAM LOVEL (Lupellus), brother and heir [of Waleran d'Ivry, who gave his English lands to William and died about 1177]. He joined the rebellion of his brother-in-law Waleran, Count of Meulan, in 1123, and took part in the unsuccessful attempt to relieve the castle of Vatteville in March 1124, but shortly after escaped from the battle of Bourgthéroulde, where the rebels were defeated. Later in the same year he made his peace with the King, and thereafter received considerable grants of land in England. A writ of Geoffrey, Duke of Normandy, is addressed to him between 1144 and 1150, and in 1150-1151 he witnessed at Rouen the charter of Henry, Duke of Normandy, for the town of Rouen. In 1153 his lands in Normandy and, those of his brother, Roger le Bègue, were overrun, and laid waste by Simon de Montfort, Count of Evreux. At some time before 1162 he, with his wife and son Waleran, gave to the abbey of Haute-Bruyère three modii of meal from the mills of his castle of Ivry.
He married Maud, daughter of Robert, and sister of Waleran, COUNT OF MEULAN, and sister also of Robert, EARL OF LEICESTER. He was living in 1166, but dead in 1170. His widow was living in 1189. [Complete Peerage VIII:211-2, XIV:454, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)] 
LOVEL, William Goel Seigneur d'Ivri et Breval (I6497)
 
48 [ERMENGARDE (-after 1018). Ernest Petit suggests that Ermengarde, wife of Milon [III] Comte de Tonnerre, was the daughter of Rainard and heiress of Bar-sur-Seine. A family connection is indicated by the charter dated to [992/1005] uner which “Milo comes Tornodorensis castri” donated property "in villa…Curtis-Secreta" to the monastery of Saint-Michel, with the consent of “coniugis mee Ermengarde et carissimorum filiorum meorum Achardi, Rainardi et Alberici”, the property being the same as the subject of the [992] charter witnessed by "…Raynardus comes…". She married MILO [IV] Comte de Tonnerre, son of --- ([950/65]-1002 or after).
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CHAMPAGNE%20NOBILITY.htm#EngelbertIIIBriennedied1008B]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

[ERMENGARde (-aft.er 1018). Ernest Petit suggeSte. that Ermengarde, wi fe of Milon [III] Comte de Tonnerre, was the daughter of Rainard and h eiress of Bar-sur-Seine. A family connection is indicated by the chart er dated to [992/1005] uner which “Milo comes Tornodorensis castri” do nated property "in villa…Curtis-Secreta" to the monastery of St. Miche l, with the consent of “coniugis mee Ermengarde et carissimorum filior um meorum Achardi, Rainardi et Alberici”, the property being the sam e as the subject of the [992] charter witnessed by "…Raynardus comes…" . She married MILO [IV] Comte de Tonnerre, son of --- ([950/65]-1002 o r aft.er). 
Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine (I5336)
 
49 "Cil de Saie," mentioned by Wace in his account of the battle of Hastings, took his name from the vill of Saium or Say, about nine miles to the west of Exmes, the caput of Roger de Montgomeri's Norman Viscountcy, and held under Roger in Normandy, as he afterwards did in England. He is known as Picot de Say, for Ficot, or Picot, at first a sobriquet only, is given as his recognised appellation in Domesday; thought the son and grandson that inherited his barony were always styled De Say. There is still extant the charter by which he, with his wife Adeloya, and his two sons, Robert and Henry, bestowed lands in 1060 on the Abbey founded by his suzerain at Seez. He came over to England in Roger's train; and was one of those to whom, according to Orderic, the new Earl 'gave commands' in Shorpshire. Twenty-nine manors wre allowed to him; and Clun, as the largest of them, gave its name to his bariony. In 1083, he, with the other principal men of the country, was summoned to attend at the dedication of Shrewsbury Abbey. His son Henry succeeded him, and was followed in the next generation by Helias.
[Battle Abbey Roll III:126]

Say, Sai, of Shropshire.
Sai: Orne, arr. and cant. Argentan.
Picot, who was a substantial under-tenant of Earl Roger of Montgomery at Clun and elsewhere in Shropshire, is shown by the devolution of his lands to have been Picot de Say. Robert, Abbot of St-Martin de Sees granted the privilege of burial to Robert and Henry their sons; and in return Picot (as he is henceforth called) and his wife gave to the abbey "edificium matris Picot cum virgulto quod habebat juxta ecclesiam sancte Marie de Vrou" and confirmed a third of the church of Sai which Osmelinus de Sayo gave at the same time, giving also meadow land in the meadows "de Juvigneio"; the charter is subscribed by Earl Roger, Picot and his wife and two sons. "Vrou" is clearly Urou, the next parish to Sai, and Juvigni the parish immediately south of Sai. An agreement was made on 17 May 1086 in the court of Robert de Belleme between Picot de Saio and Droco de Coimis as to the dower which Droco's brother William had given to Adeloia his wife, who had been remarried to Picot. This is further evidence of Picot's tenure under the house of Montgomery-Belleme, and suggests that the charter to St-Martin de Sees was considerably later than 1060, the date to which it has been assigned.
[Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families]

The first member of the family of Say mentioned by Sir William Dugdale is Picot de Say, who, in the time of the Conqueror, and living in 1083, was one of the principal persons in the co. Salop under Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury. The next is Ingelram de Say, one of the staunchest adherents of King Stephen in his contest with the Empress Maud, and made prisoner with the monarch at the battle of Lincoln. After this gallant and faithful solder, we come to William de Say, son of William de Say, and grandson, of William de Say, who came into England with the Conqueror. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd., London, 1883, p. 476, Saye, or Say, Barons Saye]


-- MERGED NOTE ------------

"Cil de Saie," mentioned by Wace in his account of the battle of Hasti ngs, took his name from the vill of Saium or Say, about nine miles t o the west of Exmes, the caput of Roger de Montgomeri's Norman Viscoun tcy, and held under Roger in Normandy, as he aft.erwards did in Englan d. He is known as Picot de Say, for Ficot, or Picot, at first a sobriq uet only, is given as his recognised appellation in Domesday; though t the son and grandson that inherited his barony were always styled d e Say. There is still extant the charter by which he, with his wife Ad eloya, and his two sons, Robert and Henry, bestowed lands in 1060 on t he Abbey founded by his suzerain at Seez. He came over to England in R oger's train; and was one of those to whom, according to Orderic, th e new Earl 'gave commands' in Shorpshire. Twenty-nine manors wre allow ed to him; and Clun, as the largest of them, gave its name to his bari ony. In 1083, he, with the other principal men of the country, was sum moned to attend at the dedication of Shrewsbury Abbey. His son Henry s ucceeded him, and was followed in the next generation by Helias. 
Picot de Say, Lord of Clun (I6104)
 
50 "Danby Lodge was the former residence of the Dawnay family during the shooting season. It was in 1656 that the manor of Danby came into the possession of the Dawnays, when they paid Ð4102 for it. The house did not afford accommodation for a large retinue, but merely for small parties who participated in the field sports with Lord Downe.
At one time the lodge boasted a portrait of Catherine Parr (the sixth and last wife of Henry VIII married in 1543). The portrait hung in one of the spacious rooms, but regrettably was removed from the lodge when the building was opened as a National Park Centre in 1975. Catherine Parr lived for several years at nearby Danby Castle with her second husband - Lord John Latimer. Catherine's husband died in London in 1543, and four months later on 12th July, she became Queen of England" 
LE LATIMER, William III, Lord Latimer (I10890)
 

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