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1



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Onis shows as a widower in the 1678 Acadian census, living with Pierr e and Marie. Speculation is that he was the father of Pierre. 
GAUDET, Denis (I30058)
 
2



Alexander Filius Geroldi, brother of the chamberlain Henry fitz Gerold , in whose 'Charta' he appears holding fees 'de novo,' with Hugh fit z Gerold. Warin fitz Gerold also occurs, specifically identified as He nry's brother. Before 1156 he married Alice de Rumilly, widow of Willi am fitz Duncan, through whome he held the honour of Skipton. Benefacto r of Southwark priory, to which he granted two measures of chesse in B alking, in Kingston Lisle, Berkshire, confirmed by Alice de Rumilly hi s wife, who had dower there. The grant was confirmed by his sister Ami ce de Tresgoz, daughter of Robert fitz Gerold and Alice his wife, wido w of Philip de Leyburn and then wife of John de Tresgoz, and also by h is nephew Henry II fitz Gerold. Alexander and his wife Alice were als o benefactors of Dunstable. Amice occurs as 'Anna' or Amy wife of Joh n de Tresgod in Westminster documents concerning property in London t o which she was coheir with Margaret, then wife of Peter de Sutton. He nry fitz Gerold made a grant to the same house for the soul of his bro ther Warin. He died without issue about midsummer 1178. Maurice of Bor eham and Odo Burnard occur on Pipe Role 5 Richard I, 6, as heirs of Al exander fitz Gerold.
Domesday Descendants pp892-893 
FITZGEROLD, Alexander (I9130)
 
3



ANNA [886/88]-[901/early 904]). The basis for this betrothal is a lett er written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French tran slation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his un suitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'a ccord… conclu avec le Franc… tu lui destinais comme é pouse ta fille u nique… [au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrive l'infortune que l'o n sait". The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipa ni proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothar II King of Lotharin gia who married Adalbert Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (hi s blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Loui s III King of Italy (his title in 900). Settipani assumes that the mar riage actually took place. However, the translation only refers to a p roposed marriage "…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that th e marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever lef t Byzantium for Provence. Anna is not named in any of the surviving ch arters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in an y of the primary sources so far consulted. This would have been the fi rst marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperor s as no previous betrothal resulted in a marriage. This absence from c ontemporary western documentation is therefore striking. It also contr asts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine ori gin of Theophano, wife of Emperor Otto II, even though Theophano's pre cise ancestry is still a mystery. Traditional genealogies show Empero r Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged fi rst marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose nam e. However, another possible explanation is that the name was a symbo l of the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two succe ssor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustriou s predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", com pletely independent of his mother's maternal ancestry. Anna was crowne d Augusta in Constantinople in [899/900], after the death of her mothe r and before the third marriage of her father. Anna presumably died be fore the birth of her younger half-sister, also named Anna, which occu rred between 11 May 903 (when the younger Anna's mother was installe d in the imperial palace by Emperor Leon VI) and early 904 (given th e birth of the future Emperor Konstantinos VII in 905). Betrothed [Jun /Jul] 900) LOUIS King [of Provence, son of BOSON King [of Provence] an d his second wife Ermengardis [Carolingian] (before 882-Arles 5 Jun 92 8). He was recognised in 900 as LOUIS III King of Italy, in oppositio n to Berengario I Marchese of Friulia. He was crowned Emperor LUDWIG I II in 901, deposed in 902. 
Anna (I23188)
 
4



Annals and Antiquites of Wales has as Dolfwyn ap Rhiwallon's wife, Ali ce verch Cadwallon ap Madoc lord of Kerry, Montgomeryshire. 
FERCH HYWEL, Sian (I46012)
 
5



Died in infancy. 
FOULKE, Samuel (I17815)
 
6



Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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ERMENGARD  [775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818, bur Angers).  Thegan's Vita Hlu dowici Imperatoris  names the wife of Emperor Louis "filiam nobilissim i ducis Ingorammi… Irmingarda"[199].  The Gesta  Francorum  records t he death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[200].  The Vita Hlud owici Imperatoris  records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regi na" three days after falling ill[201].   m  [794]) as his first wife,  LOUIS King of the Aquitainians, son of CHARLES I "Charlemagne" King o f the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou [16 A pr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz , é glise abbatiale de St. Arnoul).  He was crowned Emperor LOUIS I “ der Fromme/le Pieux” in 816.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Ermengardisdi ed818]

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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ERMENGARD  [775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818, bur Angers).  Thegan's Vita Hlu dowici Imperatoris  names the wife of Emperor Louis "filiam nobilissim i ducis Ingorammi… Irmingarda"[199].  The Gesta  Francorum  records t he death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[200].  The Vita Hlud owici Imperatoris  records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regi na" three days after falling ill[201].   m  [794]) as his first wife,  LOUIS King of the Aquitainians, son of CHARLES I "Charlemagne" King o f the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou [16 A pr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz , é glise abbatiale de St. Arnoul).  He was crowned Emperor LOUIS I “ der Fromme/le Pieux” in 816.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Ermengardisdi ed818]

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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ERMENGARD  [775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818, bur Angers).  Thegan's Vita Hlu dowici Imperatoris  names the wife of Emperor Louis "filiam nobilissim i ducis Ingorammi… Irmingarda"[199].  The Gesta  Francorum  records t he death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[200].  The Vita Hlud owici Imperatoris  records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regi na" three days after falling ill[201].   m  [794]) as his first wife,  LOUIS King of the Aquitainians, son of CHARLES I "Charlemagne" King o f the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou [16 A pr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz , é glise abbatiale de St. Arnoul).  He was crowned Emperor LOUIS I “ der Fromme/le Pieux” in 816.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Ermengardisdi ed818]

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne.

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Ermengarda was the second wife of Frankish king Charlemagne. 
Ermengardis d'Hesbaye (I4230)
 
7



From: P L Kessler <plk@globalnet.co.uk>, History Files, The - Th e King Lists, 1999-2002, Home Publishing, homepages.tesco.net/~plk33/p lk33:
The Iclingas
From c. AD 520 - this band of Angles gradmaclly moved west over the Mi dlands, pushing back the borders of British kingdoms such as Cynwidio n and Pengwern, although the latter was a strong ally against the Nort humbrians from 613-656.
AD 584 - by this time various other Anglian settlements had sprung up , and the Iclingas gradmaclly extended the range of their power, slowl y amalgamating the Saxon and Anglian kingdoms around the Midlands. The y eventually became know by the territory they conquered, and Mercia e volved into a major Anglo-Saxon kingdom.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the genealogy of king Penda of Merci a as follows:
* an.DCXXVI .... penda waes pybbing . pybba creoding . creoda cynewa lding . cynewald cnebbing . cnebba iceling . icel eomaering . eomaer a ngeltheowing . angeltheow offing . offa waemunding . waemund wihtlaegi ng . wihtlaeg wodening . ..... *
In the year 626. .... Penda was son of Pybba, Pybba son of Creoda, Cre oda son of Cynewald, Cynewald son of Cnebba; Cnebba son of Icel, Ice l son of Eomaer, Eomaer son of Angeltheow, Angeltheow son of Offa, Off a son of Waemund, Waemund son of Wihtlaeg, Wihtlaeg son of Woden .....
Penda claimed descent from the royal family of the continental Angle s descended from Woden through Offa king of Angeln (in Slesvig) - on e of main heroes of Germanic legend remembered as <the best of al l mankind between the seas>. The fact that the Mercian royal famil y was known as Icelingas strengthens the claim that it was Icel and hi s son Cnebba Iceling who came to Britain in AD 499.
The Icelingas entered Britain through the estuaries of the Wash and th e Trent. They settled in navigable river valleys and areas served by R oman canals. Roman influence had wained some 100 years earlier althoug h the network of roads and canals remained. The English settlements be came part of a sophisticated and prosperous society never far away fro m means of communication by navigable rivers and canals or stone surfa ced causeways and roads.
SOURCES: Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, The Anglo -Saxon Chronicle. Roman Britain: Cllingwood and Myers, pp.356, 416-417 . Anglo-Saxon England; Prof F M Stenton. Chronicon ex Chronicis; Flore nce of Worcester. The Lost Kingdom - Anglo-Saxon Lindsey; K Leaby an d C M Coutts.
ICKELINGS OF THE PAGAN AND HEROIC TRADITION
Early pagan literature such as Beowulf, supplemented by recent archaeo logical discoveries, provide insight into the beliefs of the Angles wh ich were very similar to those of some non-christian civilizations tod ay. There was a belief in life hereafter and a profound respect for th eir ancestors. The more distant and admired ancestors assumed in legen d the stature of gods, e.g. Tiuw, Woden, Thor and Freyr, after whom th e days of the week were named in Anglo-Saxon England.
In 1997 Northamptonshire archaeologists excavated a pagan and heroic b urial in the gravel plain of the Nene Valley at Wollaston. It was th e grave of an Anglian nobleman at the side of a road leading to a Roma n vineyard and has been dated about AD 650. The most important conten t of the grave was a boar-crested helmet like those so often referre d to in Beowulf. The boar which symbolised strength and was associate d with the goddess Freyr would have been worn by Ickeling leaders of t he time.
"He was a nobleman and the boar insignia on his helmet could mean tha t he was a prince. He appears to have died when middle-aged, so he ha d probably become a war leader by fighting many bloody battles in hi s youth. He would have grown up in a village, living in a timber-frame d long-house with a thatched roof. As an aristocrat he would have lear ned how to fight with a spear and sword from an early age. He would ha ve honed his skills hunting wild boar, deer, bear and wolf in the fore sts that covered the country. As he grew older he would have carved ou t a name for himself leading bands of men into war against rival tribe s. After a hard day of hunting and pillaging he would have come home t o his wives and children. A goat, sheep or part of a cow would be thro wn into the long-hut's cauldron and his band would drink beer, mead o r wine. The prince would have led a very war-like lifestyle. Even whe n he died his sword was buried with hime to prepare him for a simila r existence in the after-life." Prof. R Cramp of Durham University, En gland.
From meagre surviving records it appears that the first king of Merci a was Creoda ruling from 585 and he was an Ickeling. He was succeede d by his son Pybba in 597. The most famous Ickeling and last of the "o ld pagan religion" was king Penda (582-654) and his genealogy links hi m with Woden and his spouse Freyr. The penny coin is named after him . A formidable ruler he rivalled the power of the Christian Northumbri an kings. The rivalry between the two kingdoms was notorious. Penda ha d defeated and killed Edwin in 633 and Oswald in 642. Both Penda and h is spouse Cyneuise remained lifelong adherents to their inherited beli efs at a time when the conversion of the English to Christianity was p roceeding apace. Their eldest son Peada had been made Prince of the Mi ddle Angles by Penda. In 653, Peada along with all the Middle Angles b ecame Christian converts in order to marry Alchfled, daughter of Penda 's rival, king Oswy of Northumbria. This did not deter Penda from cont inuing his campaigns against Northumbria and in the following year o n 15 Nov 654, Penda was defeated and killed at the battle of the rive r Winwaed by Oswy and this was hailed by Bede as a victory for Chris t over the pagan gods.
SOURCES: Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, The Anglo -Saxon Chronicle. Beowulf. The 'Pioneer' Burial: Ian Meadows: Curren t Archaeology 154. Northampton Chronicle and Echo, 23 April 1997. Pro f Rosemary Cramp of Durham University.

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From: P L Kessler <plk@globalnet.co.uk>, History Files, The - T he King Lists, 1999-2002, Home Publishing, homepages.tesco.net/~plk33/ plk33:
The Iclingas
From c. AD 520 - this band of Angles gradmaclly moved west over the Mi dlands, pushing back the borders of British kingdoms such as Cynwidio n and Pengwern, although the latter was a strong ally against the Nort humbrians from 613-656.
AD 584 - by this time various other Anglian settlements had sprung up , and the Iclingas gradmaclly extended the range of their power, slowl y amalgamating the Saxon and Anglian kingdoms around the Midlands. The y eventually became know by the territory they conquered, and Mercia e volved into a major Anglo-Saxon kingdom.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the genealogy of king Penda of Merci a as follows:
* an.DCXXVI .... penda waes pybbing . pybba creoding . creoda cynewa lding . cynewald cnebbing . cnebba iceling . icel eomaering . eomaer a ngeltheowing . angeltheow offing . offa waemunding . waemund wihtlaegi ng . wihtlaeg wodening . ..... *
In the year 626. .... Penda was son of Pybba, Pybba son of Creoda, Cre oda son of Cynewald, Cynewald son of Cnebba; Cnebba son of Icel, Ice l son of Eomaer, Eomaer son of Angeltheow, Angeltheow son of Offa, Off a son of Waemund, Waemund son of Wihtlaeg, Wihtlaeg son of Woden .....
Penda claimed descent from the royal family of the continental Angle s descended from Woden through Offa king of Angeln (in Slesvig) - on e of main heroes of Germanic legend remembered as <the best of al l mankind between the seas>. The fact that the Mercian royal famil y was known as Icelingas strengthens the claim that it was Icel and hi s son Cnebba Iceling who came to Britain in AD 499.
The Icelingas entered Britain through the estuaries of the Wash and th e Trent. They settled in navigable river valleys and areas served by R oman canals. Roman influence had wained some 100 years earlier althoug h the network of roads and canals remained. The English settlements be came part of a sophisticated and prosperous society never far away fro m means of communication by navigable rivers and canals or stone surfa ced causeways and roads.
SOURCES: Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, The Anglo -Saxon Chronicle. Roman Britain: Cllingwood and Myers, pp.356, 416-417 . Anglo-Saxon England; Prof F M Stenton. Chronicon ex Chronicis; Flore nce of Worcester. The Lost Kingdom - Anglo-Saxon Lindsey; K Leaby an d C M Coutts.
ICKELINGS OF THE PAGAN AND HEROIC TRADITION
Early pagan literature such as Beowulf, supplemented by recent archaeo logical discoveries, provide insight into the beliefs of the Angles wh ich were very similar to those of some non-christian civilizations tod ay. There was a belief in life hereafter and a profound respect for th eir ancestors. The more distant and admired ancestors assumed in legen d the stature of gods, e.g. Tiuw, Woden, Thor and Freyr, after whom th e days of the week were named in Anglo-Saxon England.
In 1997 Northamptonshire archaeologists excavated a pagan and heroic b urial in the gravel plain of the Nene Valley at Wollaston. It was th e grave of an Anglian nobleman at the side of a road leading to a Roma n vineyard and has been dated about AD 650. The most important conten t of the grave was a boar-crested helmet like those so often referre d to in Beowulf. The boar which symbolised strength and was associate d with the goddess Freyr would have been worn by Ickeling leaders of t he time.
"He was a nobleman and the boar insignia on his helmet could mean tha t he was a prince. He appears to have died when middle-aged, so he ha d probably become a war leader by fighting many bloody battles in hi s youth. He would have grown up in a village, living in a timber-frame d long-house with a thatched roof. As an aristocrat he would have lear ned how to fight with a spear and sword from an early age. He would ha ve honed his skills hunting wild boar, deer, bear and wolf in the fore sts that covered the country. As he grew older he would have carved ou t a name for himself leading bands of men into war against rival tribe s. After a hard day of hunting and pillaging he would have come home t o his wives and children. A goat, sheep or part of a cow would be thro wn into the long-hut's cauldron and his band would drink beer, mead o r wine. The prince would have led a very war-like lifestyle. Even whe n he died his sword was buried with hime to prepare him for a simila r existence in the after-life." Prof. R Cramp of Durham University, En gland.
From meagre surviving records it appears that the first king of Merci a was Creoda ruling from 585 and he was an Ickeling. He was succeede d by his son Pybba in 597. The most famous Ickeling and last of the "o ld pagan religion" was king Penda (582-654) and his genealogy links hi m with Woden and his spouse Freyr. The penny coin is named after him . A formidable ruler he rivalled the power of the Christian Northumbri an kings. The rivalry between the two kingdoms was notorious. Penda ha d defeated and killed Edwin in 633 and Oswald in 642. Both Penda and h is spouse Cyneuise remained lifelong adherents to their inherited beli efs at a time when the conversion of the English to Christianity was p roceeding apace. Their eldest son Peada had been made Prince of the Mi ddle Angles by Penda. In 653, Peada along with all the Middle Angles b ecame Christian converts in order to marry Alchfled, daughter of Penda 's rival, king Oswy of Northumbria. This did not deter Penda from cont inuing his campaigns against Northumbria and in the following year o n 15 Nov 654, Penda was defeated and killed at the battle of the rive r Winwaed by Oswy and this was hailed by Bede as a victory for Chris t over the pagan gods.
SOURCES: Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, The Anglo -Saxon Chronicle. Beowulf. The 'Pioneer' Burial: Ian Meadows: Curren t Archaeology 154. Northampton Chronicle and Echo, 23 April 1997. Pro f Rosemary Cramp of Durham University. 
Icel of Mercia (I3661)
 
8



HERVE [III] de Donzy, son of GEOFFROY III Sire de Donzy & his second w ife Garna de Toucy -1187). The Historia Gloriosi Regis Ludovici VII r ecords that "Gaufridus de Giemago… Herveus filius eiusdem Gaufridi" ob jected to his father granting the castle of Gien to his sister as dowr y when she married "Stephano de Sancerro". Gervais abbé de St. Germa in d'Auxerre and "Gaufredum Donziacum" reached agreements relating t o Diges, with the consent of "B… uxor Gaufredi et duo filii eius, Herv eus… et Gaufredus", by charter dated 1151. He succeeded his father a s Seigneur de Donzy. He went on the Third Crusade. “Hugo de La Fert é cognomento Blancus, qui ex parte matris, domini Gaufridi de Donziac o” donated property to La Charité -sur-Loire, approved by “præ fatus d ominus Gaufridus de Donziaco… cum duobus filiis Herveo et Gaufrido” b y charter dated 1151. “Herveus de Donziaco” donated property to La Ch arité -sur-Loire, with the approval of “Guillelmus Goet et Philippus , filii mei”, by charter dated 1187. He married firstly MATHILDE Goë t , daughter of GUILLAUME [IV] Goë t de Montmirail Seigneur d'Alluis & h is wife Isabelle de Blois -22 Jan ----). The primary source which con firms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. Rober t of Torigny names "Herveus de Juen" as husband of "Guillermus Goeth … primogenitam filiam natam ex una sororem comitis Teobaldi". He marri ed secondly ---. The primary source which confirms this second marria ge has not yet been identified.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BURGUNDIAN%20NOBILITY.htm ] 
Herve III Seigneur de Donzy (I8950)
 
9



In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller c astle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under hi s cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bectiv e Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near h is 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hope s that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Ca stle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king too k the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richar d I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his serv ices there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. H e was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Irela nd. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying with out license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of t he custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdere d by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity wi th which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the ca stle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constabl e of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dorman t and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, La cy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1 186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not , as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to ce rtain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his fath er's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quart ers knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In Oct ober 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 wa s sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Befor e Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by t he service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was al so put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a m eeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called th e Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel , which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tierna n was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to hav e left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders , and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amo ngh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyre l. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Cant erbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reprove d Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was figh ting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a mo nth; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hu gh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king wit h his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry d e Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same tim e sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare havin g died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with th e addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building num erous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it h is first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their land s. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; bu t his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusat ion that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himsel f. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost hi s favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by t he Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having marr ied the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But i n the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor i n the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, e arly in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young ear l complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pa y tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, a nd occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a c astle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 ha d gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought name d Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed h is head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Cah arny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said t o have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labour ers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for t his older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was ver y glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to o btain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himsel f formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent o ver to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abb ey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin . Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and t he monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body t o Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb o f De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes , a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but sm all and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperanc e a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in publi c business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained ma ny reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisio us, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefac tor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, includin g the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her h e had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed sep arately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. B y the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, h e had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connec tion with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part i n the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting a gainst Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, pri nce of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's t ime, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend th e Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1 222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the ot her to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughte r of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two oth er sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since Will iam de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been broth ers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller c astle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under hi s cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bectiv e Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near h is 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hope s that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Ca stle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king too k the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richar d I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his serv ices there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. H e was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Irela nd. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying with out license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of t he custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdere d by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity wi th which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the ca stle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constabl e of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dorman t and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, La cy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1 186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not , as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to ce rtain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his fath er's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quart ers knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In Oct ober 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 wa s sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Befor e Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by t he service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was al so put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a m eeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called th e Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel , which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tierna n was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to hav e left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders , and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amo ngh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyre l. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Cant erbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reprove d Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was figh ting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a mo nth; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hu gh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king wit h his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry d e Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same tim e sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare havin g died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with th e addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building num erous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it h is first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their land s. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; bu t his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusat ion that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himsel f. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost hi s favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by t he Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having marr ied the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But i n the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor i n the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, e arly in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young ear l complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pa y tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, a nd occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a c astle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 ha d gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought name d Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed h is head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Cah arny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said t o have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labour ers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for t his older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was ver y glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to o btain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himsel f formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent o ver to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abb ey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin . Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and t he monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body t o Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb o f De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes , a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but sm all and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperanc e a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in publi c business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained ma ny reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisio us, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefac tor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, includin g the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her h e had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed sep arately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. B y the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, h e had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connec tion with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part i n the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting a gainst Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, pri nce of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's t ime, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend th e Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1 222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the ot her to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughte r of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two oth er sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since Will iam de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been broth ers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller c astle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under hi s cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bectiv e Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near h is 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hope s that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Ca stle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king too k the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richar d I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his serv ices there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. H e was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Irela nd. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying with out license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of t he custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdere d by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity wi th which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the ca stle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constabl e of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dorman t and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, La cy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1 186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not , as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to ce rtain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his fath er's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quart ers knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In Oct ober 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 wa s sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Befor e Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by t he service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was al so put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a m eeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called th e Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel , which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tierna n was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to hav e left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders , and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amo ngh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyre l. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Cant erbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reprove d Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was figh ting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a mo nth; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hu gh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king wit h his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry d e Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same tim e sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare havin g died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with th e addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building num erous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it h is first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their land s. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; bu t his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusat ion that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himsel f. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost hi s favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by t he Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having marr ied the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But i n the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor i n the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, e arly in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young ear l complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pa y tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, a nd occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a c astle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 ha d gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought name d Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed h is head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Cah arny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said t o have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labour ers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for t his older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was ver y glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to o btain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himsel f formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent o ver to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abb ey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin . Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and t he monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body t o Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb o f De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes , a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but sm all and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperanc e a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in publi c business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained ma ny reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisio us, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefac tor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, includin g the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her h e had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed sep arately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. B y the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, h e had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connec tion with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part i n the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting a gainst Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, pri nce of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's t ime, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend th e Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1 222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the ot her to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughte r of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two oth er sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since Will iam de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been broth ers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller c astle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under hi s cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bectiv e Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near h is 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hope s that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Ca stle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king too k the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richar d I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his serv ices there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. H e was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Irela nd. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying with out license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of t he custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdere d by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity wi th which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the ca stle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constabl e of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dorman t and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, La cy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1 186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not , as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to ce rtain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his fath er's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quart ers knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In Oct ober 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 wa s sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Befor e Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by t he service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was al so put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a m eeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called th e Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel , which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tierna n was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to hav e left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders , and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amo ngh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyre l. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Cant erbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reprove d Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was figh ting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a mo nth; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hu gh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king wit h his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry d e Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same tim e sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare havin g died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with th e addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building num erous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it h is first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their land s. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; bu t his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusat ion that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himsel f. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost hi s favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by t he Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having marr ied the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But i n the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor i n the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, e arly in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young ear l complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pa y tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, a nd occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a c astle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 ha d gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought name d Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed h is head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Cah arny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said t o have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labour ers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for t his older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was ver y glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to o btain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himsel f formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent o ver to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abb ey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin . Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and t he monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body t o Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb o f De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes , a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but sm all and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperanc e a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in publi c business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained ma ny reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisio us, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefac tor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, includin g the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her h e had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed sep arately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. B y the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, h e had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connec tion with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part i n the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting a gainst Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, pri nce of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's t ime, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend th e Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1 222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the ot her to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughte r of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two oth er sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since Will iam de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been broth ers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller c astle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under hi s cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bectiv e Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near h is 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hope s that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Ca stle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king too k the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richar d I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his serv ices there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. H e was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Irela nd. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying with out license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of t he custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdere d by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity wi th which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the ca stle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constabl e of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dorman t and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, La cy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1 186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not , as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to ce rtain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his fath er's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quart ers knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In Oct ober 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 wa s sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Befor e Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by t he service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was al so put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a m eeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called th e Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel , which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tierna n was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to hav e left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders , and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amo ngh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyre l. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Cant erbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reprove d Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was figh ting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a mo nth; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hu gh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king wit h his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry d e Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same tim e sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare havin g died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with th e addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building num erous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it h is first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their land s. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; bu t his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusat ion that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himsel f. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost hi s favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by t he Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having marr ied the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But i n the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor i n the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, e arly in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young ear l complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pa y tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, a nd occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a c astle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 ha d gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought name d Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed h is head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Cah arny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said t o have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labour ers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for t his older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was ver y glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to o btain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himsel f formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent o ver to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abb ey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin . Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and t he monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body t o Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb o f De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes , a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but sm all and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperanc e a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in publi c business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained ma ny reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisio us, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefac tor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, includin g the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her h e had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed sep arately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. B y the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, h e had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connec tion with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part i n the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting a gainst Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, pri nce of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's t ime, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend th e Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1 222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the ot her to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughte r of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two oth er sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since Will iam de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been broth ers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller c astle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under hi s cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bectiv e Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near h is 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hope s that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Ca stle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king too k the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richar d I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his serv ices there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. H e was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Irela nd. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying with out license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of t he custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdere d by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity wi th which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the ca stle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constabl e of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dorman t and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, La cy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1 186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not , as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to ce rtain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his fath er's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quart ers knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In Oct ober 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 wa s sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Befor e Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by t he service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was al so put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a m eeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called th e Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel , which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tierna n was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to hav e left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders , and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amo ngh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyre l. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Cant erbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reprove d Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was figh ting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a mo nth; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hu gh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king wit h his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry d e Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same tim e sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare havin g died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with th e addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building num erous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it h is first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their land s. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; bu t his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusat ion that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himsel f. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost hi s favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by t he Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having marr ied the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But i n the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor i n the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, e arly in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young ear l complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pa y tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, a nd occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a c astle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 ha d gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought name d Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed h is head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Cah arny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said t o have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labour ers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for t his older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was ver y glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to o btain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himsel f formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent o ver to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abb ey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin . Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and t he monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body t o Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb o f De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes , a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but sm all and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperanc e a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in publi c business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained ma ny reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisio us, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefac tor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, includin g the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her h e had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed sep arately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. B y the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, h e had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connec tion with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part i n the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting a gainst Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, pri nce of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's t ime, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend th e Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1 222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the ot her to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughte r of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two oth er sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since Will iam de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been broth ers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller c astle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under hi s cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bectiv e Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near h is 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hope s that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Ca stle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king too k the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richar d I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his serv ices there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. H e was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Irela nd. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying with out license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of t he custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdere d by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity wi th which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the ca stle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constabl e of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dorman t and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, La cy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1 186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not , as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to ce rtain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his fath er's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quart ers knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In Oct ober 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 wa s sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Befor e Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by t he service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was al so put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a m eeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called th e Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel , which both parties attributed to the treachery of the other; Tierna n was slain, and Hugh only escaped with difficulty. Lacy seems to hav e left Dublin in charge of Earl Richard de Clare by the king's orders , and to have commenced securing Meath by the erection of castles. Amo ngh these was the castle of Trim, which was put in charge of Hugh Tyre l. After this Lacy went back to England. On 29 Dec 1172 he was at Cant erbury, where, according to a story preserved by Giraldus, he reprove d Archbishop Richard for his boastful langmacge. Next year he was figh ting for Henry in France, and held Verneuil against Louis VII for a mo nth; but at the end of that time the town was forced to capitulate. Hu gh de Lacy is mentioned as one of those who were sent by the king wit h his treasure to Jerusalem in May 1177. Another version names Henry d e Lacy, and in any case it cannot be our Hugh, who was at the same tim e sent over to Ireland as procurator-general, Richard de Clare havin g died shortly before. The grant of Meath was now confirmed, with th e addition of Offelana, Offaly, Kildare, and Wicklow.
As governor of Ireland Lacy secured Leinster and Meath by building num erous castles, while he maintained peace and good order by making it h is first care to preserve the native Irish in possession of their land s. by his liveral and just conduct he won the hearts of the Irish; bu t his friendly relations with the native chiefs soon led to an accusat ion that he intended to seize the sovereignty of the island for himsel f. The author of the 'Gesta Henrich' however, says that Lacy lost hi s favour with Henry in consequence of complaints of his injustice by t he Irish. In 1181, he was recalled from his government for having marr ied the daughter of Roderic, king of Connaught, without leave. But i n the following winter Hugh was sent back, though with a condjutor i n the person of one of the royal clerks, Robert of Shrewsbury. When, e arly in 1185, Henry sent his son John over to Ireland, the young ear l complained to his father that Hugh would not permit the Irish to pa y tribute. This led to fresh disgrace, but Hugh remained in Ireland, a nd occupied himself as before with castle-building. He had erected a c astle at Durrow, in what is now King's County, and on 25 July 1186 ha d gone out to view it, when 'one of the men of Teffia, a yought name d Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, approached him, and with an axe severed h is head from his body.' The murderer was a foster-son of Sinnach O'Cah arny, or 'the Fox,' chief of Teffia, by whose instigation he is said t o have done the deed. A later story described him as one of the labour ers on the castle, but there does not appear to be any authority for t his older than Holinshed. William of Newburgh says that Henry was ver y glad at Hugh's death, and repeats the story that he had aspired to o btain the crown of Ireland for himself. Certainly Lacy had made himsel f formidable to the royal authority, and Earl John was promptly sent o ver to Ireland to take possession of his lands.
Lacy was buried at Durrow, but in 1195 his body was removed to the abb ey of Bective in Meath, and his head to St Thomas's Church at Dublin . Afterwards a controversy arose between the canons of St Thomas and t he monks of Bective, with ended in 1205 in the removal of the body t o Dublin, where it was interred, together with the head, in the tomb o f De Lacy's first wife.
Giraldus describes Lacy as a swarth man, with small black sunken eyes , a flat nose, and an ugly scar on his check; muscular in body, but sm all and ill-made. he was a man of resolute character; for temperanc e a very Frenchman, careful in private affairs, and vigilant in publi c business. Despite his experience in military matters he sustained ma ny reverses in his campaigns. He was lax in his morality, and avarisio us, but eager beyond measure for honour and renown. Hugh was a benefac tor of Lanthony Abbey, and also of many churches in Ireland, includin g the abbey of Trim.
Hugh's first wife was Rose or Roysya de Monemne (Monmouth); by her h e had two sons, Walter (d 1241) and Hugh, both of whom are noticed sep arately, and also a daughter, Elayne, who married Richard de Beaufo. B y the daughter of Roderic O'Connor whose name is also given as Rose, h e had a son William (called Gorm or 'Blue'), who acted in close connec tion with his half-borthers. William de Lacy took a prominent part i n the resistance to William Marshal in 1224, and was killed fighting a gainst Cathal O'Reilly in 1233. He married a daughter of Llewelyn, pri nce of North Wales. Pierce Oge Lacy, the famous rebel of Elizabeth's t ime, was eighteenth in descent from him, and from him also descend th e Lynches of Galway. Hugh had another son, Gilbert, who was alive in 1 222, and two daughters, one married ot Geoffrey de Marisco, and the ot her to William FitzAlan, but by which wife is not clear. The daughte r of the king of Connaught was alive in 1224; whe had at least two oth er sons, Thomas and Henry, whose surname is given as Blund. Since Will iam de Lacy is also sometimes called LeBlund, they may have been broth ers of the whole blood.
[Dictionary of National Biography XI:376-7]

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

In 1272, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Liberty of Meath by Henry II wh o sought to limit the expansionist policies of Strongbow [Richard de C lare], whom he feared might set up an independent Anglo-Norman kingdo m in Ireland. Soon after his arrival at Trim, de Lacy built a wooden c astle, the spike stockade mentioned in the "Song of Dermot and the Ear l"--a poem of the period.
De Lacy left one of his barons, Hugh Tyrell, in charge, but when O'Con nor, King of Connacht, threatened, Tyrell abandoned and burned the cas tle. By 1176, this wooden fortification had been replaced with a ston e keep or tower. When the site was secure, the castle yard was surroun ded by curtain walls and moat with a simple gate and bridge to the nor th. Analyses of samples of surviving structural timbers show that th e keep was extended in at least two more phases and remodelled in th e lifetime of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's son. Later, fore-buildings were b uilt to protect the entrance to the keep.
[Trim Castle Visitors Guide, Duchas--The Heritage Service of Ireland]

Hugh was killed in Durrow while overseeing the building of a smaller c astle. A man, who had gotten close to Hugh pulled an axe from under hi s cloak and lopped Hugh's head off. His body was buried at the Bectiv e Abbey about 8 kms. from Trim Castle while his head was buried near h is 1st wife in Dublin. The Cistercian Monks of Bective Abbey had hope s that the possession of Hugh's body would give them rights to Trim Ca stle and the extensive lands associated with it. However the king too k the castle and lands until Walter came of age, at which time Richar d I gave them to Walter.
Hugh de Laci was employed in the conquest of Ireland, and for his serv ices there obtained from King Henry II, the whole county of Meath. H e was subsequently constituted governor of Dublin and justice of Irela nd. But incurring the displeasure of his royal master by marrying with out license the king of Connaught's dau., he was divested in 1181 of t he custody of the metropolis. In four years afterwards he was murdere d by one Malvo Miadaich, a mean person, in revenge for the severity wi th which he had treated the workmen employed by him in erecting the ca stle of Lurhedy. He left issue, Walter, his successor; Hugh, constabl e of Ireland; Elayne, m. to Richard de Beaufo. [Bernard Burke, Dorman t and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd, London, 1883, p. 310, La cy, Earls of Lincoln]
Hugh de Lacy, fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and first Lord of Meath (d 1 186), one of the conquerors of Ireland, was no doubt the sone, and not , as sometimes been stated, a younger brother of Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh de Lacy is said to have had a dispute with Joce de Dinan as to ce rtain lands in Herefordshire in 1154. He was in possession of his fath er's lands before 1163, and in 1165-6 held fifty-eight and three-quart ers knight's fees, and had nine tenants without knight service. In Oct ober 1171 he went over to Ireland with Henry II, and early in 1172 wa s sent to receive the submission of Roderic, king of Connaught. Befor e Henry's departure about the end of March Lacy was granted Meath by t he service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority; he was al so put in charge of Dublin Castle. Later in the year Lacy arranged a m eeting with Tiernan O'Rourke to take place at Tlachtgha, now called th e Hill of Ward, near Athboy in Meath. The meeting ended in a quarrel , which both parties attributed to the tr 
DE LACY, Hugh Baron de Lacy Lord Meath (I7243)
 
10



Lot Luwddoc, King of Gododdin, (Born c.AD 470), (Welsh: Lludd; Latin : Leudonus; English: Lloyd)
Lot Luwddoc (of the Host) is the famous king of legend who married Ann a-Morgause, the half-sister of the great King Arthur, and became fathe r of Gawain. The Brut y Brenhinedd - the Welsh translation of Geoffre y of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain - confuses him with Ll ew ap Cynfarch, brother of Urien Rheged, another powerful king in Nort hern Britain. Lot, however, had a more obscure ancestry descending ult imately from Caradog, the pre-Roman King of the Catuvellauni tribe, wh o was taken as a captive to Rome in AD 43.
In Welsh tradition, the father of Gawain is called Gwyar, a confused n ame sometimes, mistakenly, thought to refer to Lot's wife. It seems t o have been some kind of heroic title meaning 'Blood'.
Lot ruled Gododdin, in Northern Britain, from his capital at Trapain L aw, near Haddington (Lothian), where a poSt. Roman booty, possibly fro m his treasury, has been uncovered; but he was also said to have hel d court at Din Eityn (the Castle Rock in Edinburgh). His kingdom event ually became known as Lothian in his honour.
In his early years, at least, Lot was a pagan and hagiographic traditi on does not portray him in a very positive light. It is said he was s o incensed by the shame, brought about by his unmarried daughter's pre gnancy, that he had her thrown off a cliff! When he eventually died, h e is traditionally said to have been buried at Dunpender Law in East L othian.
Source: http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/lotgn.html
Lot's ancestry is therefore quite muddled. However, his great grandfat her's name, Decion or Decurion, may indicate descent from men given Ro man military positions in the borderland buffer zone north of Hadrian' s Wall. The appearance of Lleu and Gwydion would seem to show the comm only claimed descent from Celtic Gods, though their positioning is a l ittle strange. The latter was associated with Arfon in North Wales an d their presence has led to a suggestion that this line represents tha t of an unknown group of lords from this area. Gwydion may also repres ent Guiderius, Geoffrey's name for Togodumnus, Chief of the Catuvellau ni tribe (from Hertfordshire) and brother of Caratacus, shown in the p revious generation. Caratacus, Cunobelinus and Tasciovanus are histori cal pre-Roman figures recorded by Dio Cassius and Tacitus. The Roman E mperors are obviously completely misplaced and actually extend back th rough a long list of their twenty-nine predecessors in the Imperial of fice, represented as a single family.
Source: http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/gene/lotanc.html 
Lawdden Llydog (I45661)
 
11



Macbeth was said to be a grandson of Malcolm II and cousin to Thorfinn . SP states that Macbeth's mother was said to be Donada, second daught er of Malcolm, however, she was known to be Thorfinn's mother, so Macb eth's mother would have had to have been an third daughter whose nam e is unknown. 
Donada of Scotland (I3839)
 
12



Margaret, daughter of 6th Earl of Mar. [Burke's Peerage, p. 2716]
Marjory/Mary, widow of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl of th e creation deemed to have been effected by 1115, and daughter of 6th E arl of Mar.
Burke's Peerage, p. 2770 
Margaret de Mar (I12885)
 
13



Morgan Mwynfawr d 665?), regulus of Glamorgan, was the son of Arthrwy s ap Meurig ap Tewdrig, and may be the Morcant whose death is recorde d in 'Annales Cambriae' under the year 665. The charters contained i n the 'Book of LLandaff' include a number of grants which he is said t o have made to the church of Llandaff in the time of Bishops Oudoceu s and Berthguin. Other charters in the book of the time of Bertguin ar e attested by him, and an account is also given of ecclesiastical proc eedings taken against him by Oudoceus in consequence of his murderin g his uncle Ffriog. Though the 'Book of Llandaff' was compiled about t he middle of the twelfth century, at a time when the see was vigorousl y asserting disputed claims, it nevertheless embodies a quantity of va lmacble old material, and (details apart) is probably to be relied upo n in the general view it gives of the position of Morgan. He appears a s owner of lands in Gower, Glamorgan, and Gwent, and since the latte r two districts were afterwards ruled over by his descendants, was pro bably sovereign of most of the region between the Towy and the Wye.
It has been very generally supposed that Morgannwg - a term of varyin g application, but usually denoting the country between the Wye and th e Tawe - takes its name from Morgan Mwynfawr. Mr Phillimore, in a not e to the Cymmrodorion edition of Owen's 'Pembrokeshre' suggests, howev er, that it is merely a variant of Gwlad Fogan, and that previous to t he eleventh century the country was always known as Glywysing.
Morgan Mwynafawr, in common with may of his contemporaries, is a figur e in the legends of the bards. He is mentioned in the 'Historical Tria ds' as one of the three Reddeners (i.e. devastators) of the isle of Br itain; in the 'Iolo MSS' he is said to have been a cousin of King Arth ur and a knight of his court, while his car was reckoned one of the ni ne treasures of Britain, for 'whoever sat in it would be immediately w haresoever he wished.' [Dictionary of National Biography XIII:907]
Morgan Mwynfawr (fl 730), 'the Benefactor,' or Morgan ab Athrwys, kin g of Morgannwg, from whom the old kingdom of Glamorgan, embracing Glyw ysing and Gwent, probably took its name. He was the grandson and no do ubt the successor of king Meurig ap Tewdrig, the reputed husband of On brans, daughter of Gwrgant Mawr, last king of Erging (S. Herefordshire ). Morgan's realm actually extended beyond the Wye into part of Erging , and westwards as far as the Towy. He was succeeded by his son Ithel . [Dictionary of Welsh Biography 639]
The story of Morgan Mwynfawr (the Courteous) is the nest ray of ligh t thrown on the annals of Glamorgan. He was the son of Athrwys, whom s ome perilously identify with Arthur, and so great was his renown and h igh his character as protector of his country, bleeding from the wound s inflicted by Nordmanni and Mercian adventurers, that the territory h e ruled chose to call itself after his name - Gwlad-Morgan and Morgan- wg, indifferently, - both signifying the country or land of Morgan. H e is often called Morgan Mawr, the great, as well as Morgan Mwyn-faw r - the greatly gentle or courteous, and it is just possible that th e latter epithet in its original uncompunded form was Mwyn Mawr - 'th e great, the gentle.' In the 'history' of Glamorgan, 'out of the boo k that was in the possession of the Rev Mr. Gamage' of St Athan's, an d which passed through the hands of Iolo, it is said that he resided a t Adur and Breigan, and that he and his race, both before and after, w ere endued with the grace of supreme good fortune up to the time of Ow ain ap Morgan Hen. [Annals and Antiquities of Wales I:485-486] 
AP ATHRWYS, Morgan King of Gwent and Glywysing (I45767)
 
14



Nudd Hael, King of Selcovia, (Born c.AD 530), (Welsh: Nudd; Latin: Nat anus; English: Nathan)
King Nudd succeeded his father, Senyllt, to the lowland border kingdo m of unknown name centred around Selkirkshire in the mid-6th century . He was called 'Hael' - the Generous - and was celebrated in Welsh po etry, along with his cousins, Riderch and Morfael, as one of the 'Thre e Generous Men of Britain'.
These three, with Clydno Eityn of Din-Eityn (Edinburgh), were firm all ies and, during the AD 560s, they took their mighty armies south and i nvaded Gwynedd in revenge for the killing of their cousin, Elidyr Mwyn fawr. They devastated the country around Caer-yn-Arfon (Caernarfon) bu t were eventually driven out by King Rhun Hir.
An early 6th century monument discovered in Yarrow in Selkirkshire ma y refer to this character and his two sons, though the date is not qui te right and they may be otherwise unknown relations. It is inscribed : "This is the everlasting memorial: In this place lie the most famou s princes, Nudus and Domnogenus; in this tomb lie the two sons Liberal is [the Generous One]."
He was also father of SS. Dingat and Llidnerth, and the lovely Teagu E urfron, and was succeeded in his kingdom by the former.
Source: http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/nuddhsv.html 
AP SENYLLT, Nudd (I45684)
 
15



RESIDENCES: Sanquhar Castle is a ruined 13th century castle, with a n altered keep and ranges built around a small courtyard. A crumblin g 4 storey tower dominates the ruin, with a ruined hall block and gate way passage and semicircular tower also remain. The castle is not post ed as dangerous, as are many of the privately owned (or non-Historic S cotland) castles, but it doesn't look very stable to me. Mark, of cour se, scrambled up into the ruined tower despite the gaps in the stone a nd precarious stairs.
The lands originally belonged to the Ross family, but passed by marria ge to the Crichtons (see Crichton Castle) in the 14th century. The fou r storey ashlar-faced tower is all that remains of the original struct ure, although it was probably intended to be one of four towers in th e couryard by 1380. The design may have been changed before completio n circa 1400. On the south-west side of the couryard is a set of ver y ruined service rooms of the late 16th century, although we had a har d time picking out the shape of the foundations. The round stair turre t (visible here as the stumps of stairs running up the wall) between t he old hall and guard room and the connecting walls are all now reduce d to their foundations.
The Crichton family were made Earls of Dumfries in 1633, but in 1639 s old the property to Sir William Douglas of Drumlanrig (later Duke of Q ueensberry). The 1st Duke built a new castle at Drumlanrig, but afte r staying in it only one night, decided he did not like it and moved b ack to Sanquhar. The family moved to Drumlanrig after his death, and S anquhar was abandoned.
Reconstruction did not occur until the 19th century. The 3rd Marquis o f Bute started rebuilding Sanquhar Castle in 1896, but this was stoppe d at his death in 1900, and the castle has been left to crumble.
Two ghosts reputedly haunt the castle -- one is a "White lady", a spir it of a young woman, Marion of Dalpeddar, who disappeared in 1580 an d may have been murdered by one of the Crichton lords. A woman's skele ton was found in a wall during excavations in 1875-6, which might supp ort this story. The other ghost is that of John Wilson, hanged by anot her of the Crichtons, who manifests himself with groans and rattling . The Chrichtons weren't terribly nice people, were they? 
Isabel de Ros (I27679)
 
16



Richmond, previous creations: Alan III, a Count of Brittany, whose unc le, another Alan, was probably a companion in arms of William I (The C onqueror) at Hastings and was granted vast land holdings in Yorkshir e almost immediately after the Conquest, seems to have been recognize d as Earl of Richmond by 1136. There is no record of his formal invest iture with the dignity, however.
His title derived from Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire, which his u ncle Alan had built not long before dying in 1089 and which remained t he caput or administrative centre of the honor (agglomeration of knigh t's fees in a single unit under the feudal system). Richmond Castle wa s granted to the 1st Duke of Richmond of the present creation in Augus t 1675, the same month he was first ennobled, but the medieval hono co mprised lands throughout eastern England, not just in Yorkshire. Ear l Alan sided with Stephen against the Empress Maud at the time of th e Anarchyl. His son Conan IV held the Dukedom of Brittany (right to wh ich he enjoyed through his mother, Alan's wife) as well as the Earldo m of Richmond.
[Burke's Peerage, p. 2402]

EARLDOM OF RICHMOND (II)
CONAN IV, DUKE OF BRITTANY and EARL OF RICHMOND, son and heir, succeed ed his father in the Earldom of Richniond, being at that time under ag e. In 1156 he was in receipt of the third penny of the borough of Ipsw ich and two hundreds. In September 1156 he crossed to Brittany, besieg ed and took Rennes and put his stepfather Eudon to flight; shortly aft erwards Eudon was taken prisoner by Ralf de Fougè s and Conan was reco gnised as Duke of BrIttany. Between the latter part of 1156 and Apri l 1158 he was in England, executing charters at Boston and Washingboro ugh in Lincs, York and Richmond, and at Cheshunt in Herts, but on 22 A pril 1158 he was at Rennes, where he executed with the consent of hi s mother a charter for the abbey of St. Melaine. In July 1158 died Geo ffrey, brother of King Henry II, who had the comté of Nantes, which C onan thereupon seized. The King ordered the honor of Richmond to be se ized and crossed to France; Conan hastened to meet him at Avranches, w here on 29 September he surrendered Nantes and made his peace. At som e unascertained date after obtaining possession of the Duchy he dissel sed his uncle Count Henry of Tré guier and Guingamp, which he retaine d till his death. He must have visited England in 1160, the year of hi s marriage to Margaret of Scotland. Thereafter he was probably for th e most part in Brittany, executing a charter at Guingamp for Savigny o n 12 March 1162 or 1163, and one at Quimper for the abbey of Ste. Croi x of QuimperIé on 15 August 1162, and another for Savigny at Rennes o n 2 February 1163. He was present at the Council of Clarendon in Janua ry 1164, about which time he executed at Wilton a charter for Le Mon t St. Michel; this seems to be his last visit to England of which reco rd exists. In the latter part of 1166, when Conan's only daughter an d heir, Constance, was betrothed to Geoffrey, son of Henry II, he surr endered the Duchy of Brittany to the King, retaining only Guingamp an d its dependencies. In the same year he executed at Rennes a charter f or Savigny, and on 31 July he with the King was present at the transla tion of the body of the Breton St. Brieuc in the abbey church of SS. S ergius and Bacchus at Angers. He was again with the King at Angers o n 24 March 1168, when he witnessed a royal charter. By a charter, of w hich the limits of date are 1167-1171, he gave land for the foundatio n of the abbey of St. Maurice de Carnoë t.
He married, in 1160, Margaret of Scotland, sister of MALCOLM IV, Kin g of Scofland, and daughter of Henry, EARL OF HUNTINGDON, by Ada or Ad eline, daughter of William (DE WARENNE), EARL OF SURREY. He died 20 Fe bruary 1171. His widow married, 2ndly, before Easter 1175, Humphrey D E BoHUN, Constable of England; she died in 1201, and was buried at Saw trey Abbey, Hunts.
[Complete Peerage X:791-3, XIV:545, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)] 
Conan IV Duc de Bretagne (I9101)
 
17



Robert of Bellê me, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (1052- after 1130) was an A nglo-Norman nobleman, and one of the most promiment figures in the com petition for the succession to England and Normandy between the sons o f William the Conqueror.
He was the eldest son of Roger of Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury a nd Mabel of Bellê me.
Robert's first notable act, as a young man, was to take part in the 10 77 revolt of the young Robert Curthose against William the Conqueror , an act he shared with many other Norman nobles of his generation. Th e rebellion was put down, and the participants pardoned. William did r equire that ducal garrisons be placed in the important baronial castle s, which would make future rebellion much more difficult.
Robert's mother Mabel was killed in 1082, whereupon Robert inherited h er property which stretched across the hilly border region between Nor mandy and Maine. It is due to this early inheritance that Robert has c ome be known as of Bellê me rather than of Montgomery.
William the Conqueror died in 1087, and Robert's first act on hearin g the news was to expel the ducal garrisons from his castles. Robert C urthose was the new duke of Normandy, but he was unable to keep order , and Robert of Bellê me had a free hand to make war against his les s powerful neighbors.
The next year in the Rebellion of 1088, Odo of Bayeux rebelled in an a ttempt to place Curthose on the English throne in place of William Ruf us. At Curthose's request Robert went to England, where he joined in t he rebels' defense of Rochester Castle. The rebels were permitted to l eave after the surrender of the castle and failure of the rebellion.
Robert returned to Normandy. But Odo had preceded him, had gotten th e ear of the duke, and conviced Curthose that Robert was a danger to t he security of the duchy. Thus Robert was arrested and imprisoned upo n his disembarkation. (The duke's younger brother Henry, who was on th e same ship, was also arrested.)
Robert's father earl Roger came over from England, and, taking over hi s son's castles, defied Curthose. The duke captured several of the cas tles, but he soon tired of the matter and released Robert.
Once released, Robert returned to his wars and depredations against hi s neighbors in southern Normandy. He did help Curthose in putting dow n a revolt by the citizens of Rouen, but his motive seems to have bee n in large part to seize as many wealthy townspeople and their goods a s possible. Curthose in turn subsequently helped Robert is some of hi s fights againsts his neighbors.
In 1094 one of Robert's most important castles, Domfront, was taken ov er by the duke's brother Henry, who never relinquished it and was to b e an enemy of Robert for the rest of his life.
Later that year (1094) Robert's father earl Roger died. Robert's young er brother Hugh of Montgomery, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury inherited the En glish lands and titles, while Robert inherited his father's Norman pro perties, which included good part of central and southern Normandy, i n part adjacent to the Bellê me territories he had already inherited f rom his mother.
In 1098 Robert's younger brother Hugh died, and Robert inherited the E nglish properties that had been their father's, including the Rape o f Arundel and the Earldom of Shrewsbury.
Robert was one of the great magnates who joined Robert Curthose's 110 1 invasion of England, along with his brothers Roger the Poitevin an d Arnulf of Montgomery and his nephew William of Mortain. This invasio n, which aimed to depose Henry I, ended in the Treaty of Alton. The tr eaty called for amnesty for the participants but allowed traitors to b e punished. Henry had a series of charges drawn up against Robert in 1 102, and when Robert refused to answer for them, gathered his forces a nd besieged and captured Robert's English castles. Robert lost his Eng lish lands and titles (as did his brothers), was banished from England , and returned to Normandy.
He was one of Curthose's commanders at the Battle of Tinchebrai and b y flight from the field avoided being captured as Curthose was. With N ormandy now under Henry's rule, he submitted and was allowed to retai n his Norman fiefs. But after various conspiracies and plans to free C urthose Robert was seized and imprisoned in 1112. He spent the rest o f his life in prison; the exact date of his death is not known.
Robert married Agnes of Ponthieu, by whom he had one child, William Ta lvas, who via his mother inherited the county of Ponthieu.
Robert had a quick wit, was a good military leader and was perhaps th e best castle designer of his generation, but had a terrible reputatio n as a cruel sadist.
Sources: J. F. A. Mason, "Roger de Montgomery and His Sons (1067-1102) ", Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series vol. 13 (1 963) 1-28; Kathleen Thompson, "Robert of Bellê me Reconsidered", Anglo -Norman Studies 13 (1991) 263-284. www.wikipedia.org

Shrewsbury, Earldom of: Under the system then prevailing the Earldom p assed to an elder brother, Robert de Belleme, who constructed Bridgnor th Castle and continued the family policy of harrying the Welsh. he re belled against Henry I and in 1102 was deprived of the Earldom of Shre wsbury/Shropshire, together with his English and Welsh estates. [Burke 's Peerage, p 2604
According to Winston Churchill in " A History of English Speaking Peop le", the Montgomeries (a very great house of Norman England) sided wit h Robert, Duke of Normandy, against his brother Henry I, in the war o f succession after William Rufus, William the Conqueror's designated h eir for England was killed in a hunting accident [ in which Henry I wa s involved]. Henry I destroyed the power of the Montgomeries startin g in September 1100. He captured Robert in Nomandy in the battle at Ti nchebrai and combined England and Normandy again. 
DE MONTGOMMERY, Robert II Sire d'Alençon Comte de Ponthie (I4486)
 
18



Ruled Glywyssing and Gwent from 886- 930

_______________________________________

From: RdavidH218@Aol.com (david hughes)
Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.medieval
Subject: the Lougher Family
Date: 3 Jul 2003 17:11:16 -0700
[note: generations 20-42 are the Royal House of Medieval Glamorgan, an d, may be found in "Early Glamorgan: Glamorgan County History" [vol. 2 ], edited by Hubert N. Savory (1984); "The Middle Ages: Glamorgan Coun ty History" [vol. 3], edited by T.B. Pugh (1971); &, in "Glamorgan an d Gwent: A Guide to Ancient and Historic Wales", by Elizabeth Whittle . (1992). There are other books which give variant versions of the gen ealogy of the Glamorgan royal house. I have found that if you merge th e variant versions together that it comes out a fuller genealogy and a ll alleged discrepancies disappear.]

20. Caradoc "Freichfras", "1st" King of Glamorgan (500), d540, son of
# 19 above
21. Meurig [II] = Dyfwn of Gwent
22. Erbic = Deurig, dau of Pebiau
23. Erp (Urban) (Erb), fl. c. 595
24. Nynnio [Nyniaw], whose bros were Idnerth and Pebiaw [Peibio]
25. Llywarch
26. Tewdrig, St.
27. Meurig [III] = Onbrawst [sister of Morgan I "Mwynfawr" (d654)
[father of Arthwys I (d663)] and Cerdic], daughter of Gwrgan[t] I
"Mawr", son of Cynfyn, son of Pebiaw [Peibio], son of Erp [# 23 above]
28. Arthwys II [Athroys] d685 [or, son of [another] Meurig [III], son
of Teudric, son of Teitfal, son of Idnerth, son of Erp [# 23 above],
his bros were Ffrioc and Idnerth I
29. Morgan II "Mawr" ["The Great"] d710, his bros were Gwaeddnerth &
Ithael I [Ithe] (d705)
30. Iudhael II [Ithel] d735, his bros were Nudd "Hael" and Idnerth II
31. Rhys I, his bros were Morgan III and Rhodri I
32. Brochwel I (d755), his bros were Howel I and Arthfael I
33. Gwriad I
34. Arthfael II "Hen"
35. Rhys II, his bros were Meurig VII (d874) and Gwrgan[t] II "Frych"
36. Howel II (d884/6)
37. Owain I (d930), his bros were Arthfael III and Morgan IV
38. Morgan V "Hen" (d974), his bros were Gruffydd I, King of Gower
(d934) and Cadwgan I (d949) 39. Idwal II [Idwallon], his bros were
Cadell II and Owain II (d1001)
40. Ithel V "Ddu", his bros were Blegywryt and Howel IV
41. Gwrgan[t] III (d1042)

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

Ruled Glywyssing and Gwent from 886- 930

_______________________________________

From: RdavidH218@Aol.com (david hughes)
Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.medieval
Subject: the Lougher Family
Date: 3 Jul 2003 17:11:16 -0700
[note: generations 20-42 are the Royal House of Medieval Glamorgan, an d, may be found in "Early Glamorgan: Glamorgan County History" [vol. 2 ], edited by Hubert N. Savory (1984); "The Middle Ages: Glamorgan Coun ty History" [vol. 3], edited by T.B. Pugh (1971); &, in "Glamorgan an d Gwent: A Guide to Ancient and Historic Wales", by Elizabeth Whittle . (1992). There are other books which give variant versions of the gen ealogy of the Glamorgan royal house. I have found that if you merge th e variant versions together that it comes out a fuller genealogy and a ll alleged discrepancies disappear.]

20. Caradoc "Freichfras", "1st" King of Glamorgan (500), d540, son of
# 19 above
21. Meurig [II] = Dyfwn of Gwent
22. Erbic = Deurig, dau of Pebiau
23. Erp (Urban) (Erb), fl. c. 595
24. Nynnio [Nyniaw], whose bros were Idnerth and Pebiaw [Peibio]
25. Llywarch
26. Tewdrig, St.
27. Meurig [III] = Onbrawst [sister of Morgan I "Mwynfawr" (d654)
[father of Arthwys I (d663)] and Cerdic], daughter of Gwrgan[t] I
"Mawr", son of Cynfyn, son of Pebiaw [Peibio], son of Erp [# 23 above]
28. Arthwys II [Athroys] d685 [or, son of [another] Meurig [III], son
of Teudric, son of Teitfal, son of Idnerth, son of Erp [# 23 above],
his bros were Ffrioc and Idnerth I
29. Morgan II "Mawr" ["The Great"] d710, his bros were Gwaeddnerth &
Ithael I [Ithe] (d705)
30. Iudhael II [Ithel] d735, his bros were Nudd "Hael" and Idnerth II
31. Rhys I, his bros were Morgan III and Rhodri I
32. Brochwel I (d755), his bros were Howel I and Arthfael I
33. Gwriad I
34. Arthfael II "Hen"
35. Rhys II, his bros were Meurig VII (d874) and Gwrgan[t] II "Frych"
36. Howel II (d884/6)
37. Owain I (d930), his bros were Arthfael III and Morgan IV
38. Morgan V "Hen" (d974), his bros were Gruffydd I, King of Gower
(d934) and Cadwgan I (d949) 39. Idwal II [Idwallon], his bros were
Cadell II and Owain II (d1001)
40. Ithel V "Ddu", his bros were Blegywryt and Howel IV
41. Gwrgan[t] III (d1042) 
AP HYWEL, Owain (I45674)
 
19



Senyllt, King of Selcovia, (Born c.AD 512), (Welsh: Senyllt; Latin: Se niltus; English: Senild)
Senyllt was a son of King Cedic of Greater Strathclyde. Upon his fathe r's death, in the early 6th century, the kingdom was divided between h is brother, Tutgual Tutclyd, and himself. Being the elder of the two , Tudwal took the greater portion of Strathclyde, whilst Senyllt appea rs to have become king of the region around Selkirkshire where the peo ple were known as the Selgovae. Although the name of his kingdom is un known, for identification purposes, the Latin 'Selcovia,' would seem a ppropriate. He was succeeded by his son, Nudd Hael.
Source: http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/senylsv.html 
AP CEDIC, Senyllt (I45683)
 
20



She succeeded her father as Ctss of Menteith, suo iure. The Chronicl e of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that, after the dea th of "Walter Comyn… Earl of Menteith", his wife "married a low-born E nglish knight… John Russel", after which she was accused of killing he r first husband. She and her second husband were kept prisoners unti l they agreed to transfer the earldom of Menteith to the late earl's n ephew John Comyn and were later expelled from Scotland. They complaine d to the Pope, whose legate reversed the judgment. She married firstl y [30 Jun 1233/9 Jan 1234]) WALTER Comyn Lord of Badenoch, son of WILL IAM Comyn Earl of Buchan and his first wife Sarah FitzHugh -Nov 1258) . He succeeded as Earl of Menteith, de iure uxoris. She married second ly Sir JOHN Russell. [Foundation for Medieval Genealogy] 
MENTEITH, Isabella Countess of Menteith (I12386)
 
21



She was co-heiress of Sir Robert Harcourt. 
HARCOURT, Agnes (I48505)
 
22



Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Benne t and not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would mos t likely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd.

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Benne t a nd not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would mo st li kely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd.

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Benne t and not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would mos t likely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd.

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

Some sources state that it was Sir Thomas who married Philippa Benne t a nd not his father, Sir Richard. If this were the case, he would mo st li kely be the son of Joanna de Chetwynd. 
BENNET, Philippa (I14332)
 
23



St. Thaney, (Born c.AD 511), (Welsh: Ddenyw; Latin: Tania; English: De nise)
Princess Thaney was the daughter of King Lot of Gododdin. The old Kin g was horrified to find, one day, that his unwed daughter was pregnant , and since she steadfastly refused to name the father of her unborn i nfant, Thaney was told she must wed a local swineherd. Refusing, she s o angered her father that he had her tied into a chariot and driven ov er the cliff face at Trapain Law. However, the chariot floated gentl y to the ground and Thaney was unharmed. Picking herself up, she foun d that even this miracle had not deterred her persecutors in their end evour to rid themselves of such an embarrassment. They seized her, flu ng her into an oarless coracle, pushed it well out into the Firth, an d hoped she would be carried out to sea and drowned. In the night, how ever, a wind blew up and the coracle was carried over to the Isle of M ay, where it was surrounded by a vast school of fish which magically e scorted the coracle and its passenger to Culross, on the Fife shore o f the Forth. Here, the exhausted woman was found by St. Serf and gentl y carried to safety and shelter, where her son was born.
St. Serf baptized the infant Kentigern, and he grew to be a great ma n in the British church. Thaney became a christian as well and, in tim e, she was canonized, though not before she had been reunited with Ken tigern's father, King Owein of North Rheged. The dashing monarch had s educed poor Thaney, then returned to his wife. The princess, however , had fallen in love with him; and when, not long after Kentigern's bi rth, Owain's wife had fallen ill and died, he sent for Thaney and sh e gladly joined him. Much to her father's shame, the two were marrie d with the greatest pomp and ceremony.
Source: http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/thaneygn.html 
FERCH LLAWDDEN LLYDOG, Denyw (I45664)
 
24



Stephen, future king of England, was born about the year 1096. His mot her was Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror, and heir to all hi s strength of will and temper. His father was Stephen Count of Blois a nd Chartres, a boastful character who had made himself the laughing st ock of Europe by running away from the siege of Antioch after having b een made commander-in-chief there.
Adela's two favored sons, Stephen and Henry, were both to find their f ortunes in England. Henry, a Cluniac monk, quickly accumulated Glaston bury, the richest abbey, and Winchester, the second richest diocese i n England, and set out on his career of financial wizardry and ecclesi astical statesmanship. A man of rare power, vision and tact, he was in finitely more attuned to great responsibilities than his brother.
Stephen had a ready charm, and his gay and seemingly open nature mad e him a great success at court. His uncle Henry I loaded favours on hi m: he was given estates in England of some half a million acres, and m ade a favourable marriage to the rich heiress of the Count of Boulogne . Matilda was to be both a loyal and an able wife.
In 1136 Henry died, and though he had made all his barons swear fealt y to his daughter Matilda before his death, Stephen now moved speedil y to get himself accepted as King in England. His brother swayed the C hurch to his side, the Londoners were bought with a substantial gran t of privileges, and the Norman barons were persmacded that a woman ru ler of well-known arrogance and intractability, married to the leade r of the Normans' traditional enemies, the Angevins, would be no goo d prospect for England.
Stephen's dash and promises carried him through for a while, but quick ly enough people discovered his faults: he was tricky, changeable, oft en stupidly weak; he simply could not be relied upon, nor could he tru st others. In 1139 Matilda landed, and her bastard brother Robert of G loucester opened the West to her. During the next eight years she wa s to win defectors from Stephen's bad government.
In 1141, at Lincoln, Stephen's barons deserted him in battle, and he f ell prisoner to Matilda. But she proved as unhappy a mistress as Steph en had been master, and many people were glad when Robert of Glouceste r was captured by Stephen's Queen at the rout of Winchester, and Matil da was forced to release Stephen to get him back.
Many barons favoured this dmacl sitmaction in which they could bargai n for their services, and live as war-lords. Castles sprung up all ove r the land, and in many parts a dreadful anarchy reigned, so that man y people openly declared that Christ and his Saints were asleep, and t he Devil ruled.
Matilda's son Henry had twice invaded and been repulsed in 1147 and 11 49, but when he came again in 1153 he was backed by a tremendous accum ulation of continental power. The death of Stephen's son Eustace promp ted him to negotiate with the young Duke, and he was encouraged in thi s by the urgings of the Church and of the Norman barons who wished t o regain their continental estates now under Henry's control. So Matil da's son was made heir, and for a further year Stephen ruled, in peac e at last, until his death in October 1154. He was buried in his abbe y of Faversham.
[Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes and Noble Bo oks, New York, 1995] 
Etienne Comte de Blois de Chartres de Chât (I5158)
 
25



The name Jones (of the Blockley family) is on Scull and Heap's Map, 17 50; and Faden's Map, 1777. 
JONES, James Jr. (I18401)
 
26



The name of Robert Lloyd is on the List of Taxables for 1693 - A youn g man. Susquehanna List, 1696. His plantation was northward of that o f Rowland Ellis of Bryn Mawr. By deed, Sept. 5, 1698, he purchased fro m Wm. Howell, Edward Jones, John Roberts, Griffith Owen and Daniel Hum phrey, 409 acres of land that had been part of the Thomas Ellis tract . In Feb. 1709, Robert Lloyd and Lowry his wife, conveyed 154 1/2 a. t o Thos. bro. of Robert. 
LLOYD, Robert (I17682)
 
27



To son JAMES BRANCH, household items. 
BRANCH, James (I29179)
 
28


"RAIBOC

HIS family, so called from their chief seat at Braibrock, in the coun ty of Northampton, descended from one INGEBALD, who by Albreda, one o f the daughters and heirs to Ivo de Newmarch, had issue a son, calle d Robert May, but afterwards Robert de Braibrock, This Robert was on e of King John's council, and obtained from him the manor of Corby, i n the same county. Henry his son, married Christian, daughter and hei r of Wischard Ledet, and Margery, his wife, and died the 18th of Henr y III. leaving issue two sons, Wyschard (who assumed the surname of Le det, from his mother, the heiress of that family), and John, who retai ned his paternal name, from whom descended Sir Reginald Braibrock, who , by Joan, daughter and heir of Sir John de la Pole, of Ashby, knight , by Joan, his wife, only daughter and heir of John lord Cobham, had i ssue, Joan, his heir, who married Sir Thomas Brook, lord Cobham, in he r right. But Wiscard was the father of Walter, who had only two daught ers, his heirs; viz.Alice, who married Sir William Latimer; and Christ ian, Sir John Latimer, brother to the said Sir William (vid. Latimer) , from the last of whom, the Griffins, barons of Braybroke, are descen ded. ..."
[The Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England...by Christopher Banks] 
Henery de Baybrooke (I11157)
 
29


After Halfdan Whitleg's death, according tot he sagas, his son Eystei n ruled Vestfold until a rival king named Skjold used his magic power s to have Eystein knocked overboard during a sailing expedition. Eyste in's body was recovered from the sea and buried with great ceremony. R oyal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders and Kiev
Ruled Vestfold 750-780
Eystein Halfdansson (Old Norse: Eysteinn Há lfdansson) was the son o f Halfdan Hvitbeinn of the House of Yngling according to Heimskringla . He lived around 730, and inherited the throne of Romerike and Vestfo ld.
His wife was Hild, the daughter of the king of Vestfold, Erik Agnarsso n. Erik had no son so Eystein inherited Vestfold.
Eystein went to Varna with some ships to pillage and carried away al l livestock and other valuables. However, the king of Varna was king S kjö ld who was a great warlock. Skjö ld arrived at the beach and saw t he sails of Eystein's ships. He waved his cloak and blew into it whic h caused a boom of one ship to swing and hit Eystein so that he fell o verboard and drowned. His body was salvaged and buried in a mound.
Eystein was inherited by his son Halfdan the Mild. 
HALFDANSSON, Eystein King of Vestfold (I16174)
 
30


AIMON [I] de Genè ve, son of GERAUD Comte de Genè ve & his [second] wi fe Tetberga --- [1060/65]-12 May [1125/28]).  "Patris Geraldi et frat ris Cononis, comes Aymo successor" donated property to the church of L eman, at the request of "fratris Burchardi monachi", by undated charte r[1020].   Comte de Genè ve.  Vassal of the bishop of Geneva.  Avou é of St Victor, Geneva.  "Aymo comes Gebennensis et filius meus Giro ldus" founded the priory of Chamonix by undated charter, dated to [108 8/99], signed by "uterini fratres comitis, Willelmus Fulciniacus et Am edeus…"[1021].  "Aymo… Genevensium comes" donated property to the mon astery of St. Eugendi by charter dated 1090, signed by "Itæ uxoris ei us, Geraldi filii eius"[1022].  "Aymo comes Gebennensis et Amadeus fi lius eius" renounced rights to certain property in favour of the churc h of St. Martin by undated charter[1023].  "Aymone… comite" approve d the donation by Guy Bishop of Geneva of the church of St. Jean de Ge nè ve to the monastery of Ainay, near Lyon, by charter dated 1113[1024 ].  A charter dated 1124 records an agreement between Humbert Bisho p of Geneva and "Aymone comite"[1025].  The necrology of St. Claude r ecords the death "IV Id Mai" of "Aymo comes Gebennensis"[1026].
m  [firstly] ITA, daughter of --- -after 1090).  "Aymo… Genevensium c omes" donated property to the monastery of St. Eugendi by charter date d 1090, signed by "Itæ uxoris eius, Geraldi filii eius"[1027].
[m secondly  ---.  The chronology of this family suggests that Comt e Amedé e [I] may have been his father’s son by an otherwise unrecorde d second marriage.]
Aimon [I] & his [first] wife had one child. Aimon [I] & his [second] w ife had two children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BURGUNDY%20Kingdom.htm#GeneveMMathild eBurgundy] 
Aimon I Comte de Genève (I5148)
 
31


ALBRECHT von Bayern, son of Emperor LUDWIG IV Duke of Bavaria, King o f Germany & his second wife Marguerite Ctss de Hainaut, Ctss of Hollan d (Munich 25 Jul 1336-The Hague 13 Dec 1404, bur The Hague).  The His toria Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ  names "Stephanus et A lbertus" as sons of "Ludwicus imperator"[444].  He succeeded his fath er in 1347 as ALBRECHT I  joint-Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brother s partitioned their territories in 1349, he kept Lower Bavaria jointly .  He succeeded his mother in 1349 as ALBRECHT Count of Holland  an d Zeeland, jointly with his brother Willem.  However, the Dutch refus ed to accept this and in practice Willem governed alone.  As a resul t of a further partition in 1353, he received Straubing jointly with h is brother Wilhelm.  Named Protector of Hainaut, Holland and Seelan d in 1358, on behalf of his brother who had become insane.  Emperor K arl IV invested him with the Counties of Holland, Seeland, Friesland a nd Hainaut, but this remained unrecognised by the population.  He onl y succeeded on the death of his brother in 1388 as ALBERT Comte de Hai naut, Count of Holland and Seeland.
m firstly  (Passau 19 Jul 1353) MARGARETA von Brieg, daughter of LUDWI G I Duke of Brieg [Piast] & his wife Agnes von Glogau und Sagan [Piast ] [1342/43]-The Hague 26 Feb 1386).  Andreas von Regensburg’s early 1 5th century Chronica  records that “Albertus filius Ludwici imperatori s, qui possedit Strawbingam” married “Margaretam filiam ducis Ludwic i Polonie de Briga”[445].    The Chronica principum Polonie  names "Ma rgaretham… Hedwigim… et Katharinam" as the daughters of "dux… Ludwicus ", recording that Margareta married "Alberti ducis Bavarie, Hanonie ne c non Hollandie comitis"[446].    The Benessii de Weitmil Chroniconref ers to the mother of "Domina Iohanna filia Alberti Ducis Bauariæ et C omitis terræ Holandiæ" as "filia filiæ Ludwici Ducis Sleziæ et Domi ni Legnicensis" when recording her marriage[447].  The Oude Kronik va n Brabant  records that "Albertus palatinus Reni, dux Bavarie" marrie d "Margaretam filiam Ludovici ducis de Briga ex Polonia"[448].
m secondly  (Heusden 2 Apr 1394) MARGARETA von Kleve, daughter of ADOL F I Graf von Kleve und von der Mark & his wife Margareta von Jü lich [ 1375]-Haus Kleve near Haarlem 14 May 1411, bur The Hague Kloosterkerk) .  Jan van Leiden’s Chronicon Comitum Hollandiæ  records that Count A lbert married secondly “Margaretam iuvenculam filiam Adulphi comitis C livensis” by whom he was childless[449].
Mistress  (1): ALEIDIS van Poelgeest, daughter of ---.  Jan van Leide n’s Chronicon Comitum Hollandiærecords that, after the death of his fi rst wife, Count Albert maintained a relationship for five years with “ quandam concubinam domicellam Aleydim de Poelgeest” who was killed[450 ].
Comte Albert & his first wife had seven children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HAINAUT.htm#AlbertHainautdied1404B] 
Albrecht II Herzog von Bayern-Straubing (I24495)
 
32


AMEDEE de Maurienne, son of HUMBERT II "le Renforcé " Comte de Maurien ne et de Savoie and his wife Gisè le de Bourgogne [Comté ] (Montmé lia n [1095]-Nicosia 30 Aug 1148). "Amedeus comes" donated property to St . Jean de Maurienne, for the soul of "patris sui Uberti comtis", wit h the consent of "Gisla matre et fratribus eius Guillelmo atque Umbert o", by charter dated 21 Oct 1104, witnessed by "Odo de Camera et frate r eius Amedeus, Esmio de Camera et frater eius Bernardus, Aymo de Bocs osello, Guillelmus de Rossilione". "Amedeus… comes et fratres mei, un acum genitrice nostra Gisla" donated property to the church of Belley , for the soul of "patris nostri Humberti comitis", by undated charter . He succeeded in 1109 as AMEDEE III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie . "Amedeus… comes et fratres mei, unacum genitrice nostra Gisla" dona ted property to the church of Belley "per nostros advocatos… comitem A imonem Genevensem et Widonem de Mirabello", for the soul of "patris no stri Humberti comitis", by undated charter. The emperor recognised hi s title as Count of the Holy Roman Empire in 1111. Comte Amé dé e arr anged the marriage of his sister to Louis VI King of France, consolida ting the close relations established by his father with France. Lay-a bbot of St. Maurice d'Agaune, until 1116. "Guido Viennensis archiepis copus" (who was his maternal uncle) addressed a letter to "nepoti su o Amedeo comiti" dated [1115]. "Amedeus filius quondam Humberti comit is" confirmed the possessions of the abbey of Santa Maria di Pinerol o by charter dated 1 Mar 1131, witnessed by "Humbertus de Buzosel et A ymo frater eius, Villelmus de Camera… ". He recovered the county of T urin, lost by his father. "Comes Amedeus… cum uxore sua Adeleida comi tissa" confirmed the rights of the monastery of "S. Justi in villa Vol veria" by charter dated 27 Jul 1134, witnessed by "Umbertus de Bocsose llo, Aimo de Brianzone… ". "A. comes et marchio cum uxore sua M." don ated property to the monastery of Ripalta, with the support of "eoru m filio Umberto", by charter dated 9 Jan 1137. "Palatinus Comes Amede us" donated property to the monastery of Locedio "in terra Willelmi Ma rchionis fratris sui" [his uterine brother] by charter dated 30 Jul 11 37. "Amedeus comes et marchio" donated revenue from Conflens to the a rchbishop of Tarantasia by charter dated 28 Feb 1139. "Dominus Amedeu s comes et marchio et frater eius Raynaldus" granted rights to the arc hbishop of Tarantasia, with the consent of "Aymone vicecomite, fratrib us suis Gunterio, Willienco, Aymerico", by charter dated to [1140]. T he first known use of the white cross on a red background as the arm s of the House of Savoy was in a charter dated 1143. "Amedeus comes e t marchio et Maies comitissa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" donat ed property to the monastery of St. Maurice by charter dated 30 Mar 11 43. "Amedeus comes et marchio" confirmed donations to St. Sulpice e n Bugey, for the soul of "filii mei Humberti", by charter dated to [11 48], which also names "uxore mea Matildi", confirmed by "Aalasia comit issa de Bello Joco… cum filio meo Guichardo". "Amedeus comes et march io et Majes comitissa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" confirmed th e rights of the monastery of St. Maurice d´ Agaune by charter dated 3 0 Mar 1148. He accompanied his nephew Louis VII King of France on cru sade but died in Cyprus. The Continuator of Sigebert records that "Am adeus comes Maurianensis" died "in Cipro insula" in 1148. He married f irstly [1120/23]) ADELAIDE, daughter of --- -after Jul 1134). "Come s Amedeus… cum uxore sua Adeleida comitissa" confirmed the rights of t he monastery of "S. Justi in villa Volveria" by charter dated 27 Jul 1 134, witnessed by "Umbertus de Bocsosello, Aimo de Brianzone… ". Euro pä ische Stammtafeln shows the single marriage of Comte Amé dé e III , to Mathilde d'Albon, in 1123. Given the likely birth dates of Ali x de Savoie, oldest daughter of Comte Amé dé e, and of Mathilde d'Albo n (see below), it is unlikely that Mathilde was the mother of Alix . A first marriage of Comte Amé dé e is therefore highly probable. P alluel shows Comte Amé dé e III's first wife as Gertrude de Lorraine , daughter of Simon I Duke of Lorraine. This can be dismissed as inco rrect. Neither Europä ische Stammtafeln nor Poull refer to any such d aughter of Duke Simon. In addition, bearing in mind that Duke Simon h imself was probably born in 1096, it is chronologically impossible fo r any daughter of his to have given birth to a child in [1123/25]. He r marriage date is estimated based on the estimated birth date of th e couple's supposed elder daughter, Alix de Savoie, as shown below. T he origin of Adelaide is unknown. However, according to Europä isch e Stammtafeln, her supposed daughter Alix was Dame de Châ teauneuf-en- Valromey, de Virieu-le-Grand, et de Cordon-en-Bugey. Further researc h to trace the ownership of these fiefdoms may provide clues about th e origin of Adelaide. He married secondly [Jul 1134/1135]) MATHILDE d' Albon, daughter of GUIGUES [V] Comte d'Albon [Viennois] and his wife R egina [Matilda] --- [1112/16]-after 30 Mar 1148). "A. comes et marchi o cum uxore sua M." donated property to the monastery of Ripalta, wit h the support of "eorum filio Umberto", by charter dated 9 Jan 1137 . The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records that "Amedeo… secundo, M auriennæ comiti" married "Guigona Crassi filia". The identity of he r father is clarified as the passage also names "Humbertus minor Crass i filius" and his appointment ot "archiepiscopatum Viennensem". Europ ä ische Stammtafeln shows a single marriage of Comte Amé dé e III, t o Mathilde d'Albon, in 1123. It is more likely that Mathilde was hi s second wife, as explained above, especially if her likely birth dat e range is correct. According to Europä ische Stammtafeln, Mathilde' s parents were married in [1106-1110]. The same table shows that Math ilde's two brothers, Guigues and Humbert, were mentioned in 1110, indi cating that the marriage must have taken place during the earlier par t of this date range. A third child, Gersende d'Albon, must also hav e born during the early years of her parents' marriage as she hersel f gave birth to two sons before (or shortly after) the death of her hu sband in Oct 1129. Assuming all these dates are correct, the timescal e is tight for the birth of a fourth child, Mathilde, before 1112 at t he earliest. This would make it impossible for Mathilde to have bee n the mother of Comte Amé dé e's oldest daughter Alix. "Amedeus come s et marchio et Maies comitissa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" do nated property to the monastery of St. Maurice by charter dated 30 Ma r 1143. "Amedeus comes et marchio" confirmed donations to St. Sulpic e en Bugey, for the soul of "filii mei Humberti", by charter dated t o [1148], which also names "uxore mea Matildi", confirmed by "Aalasi a comitissa de Bello Joco… cum filio meo Guichardo". "Amedeus comes e t marchio et Majes comitissa uxor eius et Umbertus eorum filius" confi rmed the rights of the monastery of St. Maurice d´ Agaune by charter d ated 30 Mar 1148.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAVOY.htm] 
Amadeus III de Maurienne Comte de Savoie (I5928)
 
33


BAUDOUIN de Hainaut, son of BAUDOUIN IV “le Bâ tisseur” Comte de Haina ut & his wife Alice de Namur (1150-Mons 17 Dec 1195).  The Flandria G enerosa  names "Balduinus comes Hainonie" as husband of "Margaretam so rorem Philippi", specifying that he succeeded his brother-in-law as co unt of Flanders[498].  He succeeded his father in 1171 as BAUDOUI N V Comte de Hainaut, and as heir to Henri Comte de Namur et de Luxemb ourg.  He supported Philippe II King of France when war broke out wit h Philippe Count of Flanders over the inheritance of the counties of V ermandois and Valois in 1183[499].  After the unexpected birth in 118 6 of Ermesinde, daughter of Henri Comte de Namur et de Luxembourg, th e latter revoked his assurance concerning Baudouin's succession in the se two counties.  In 1188, Comte Henri was obliged to reinstate Baudo uin as his heir after a verdict in the latter's favour from Heinrich V I King of Germany.  Comte Baudouin attacked Namur, captured Comte Hen ri and obtained a confirmation of his position from Emperor Friedric h I, who also secretly created him Marquis de Namur.  Under a comprom ise reached in 1190, Baudouin received Namur immediately, and the expe ctation of Laroche and Durbuy after the death of Henri; the fate of Lu xembourg was not mentioned.  The creation of the Marquisate of Namur , and the elevation of Baudouin as Marquis de Namur, was announced a t Worms in 1190[500].  Although designated as successor in Flanders b y his brother-in-law Philippe Count of Flanders, Philippe II King of F rance claimed in 1191 that Flanders escheated to the French crown on t he death of Count Philippe in default of male heirs.  The settlemen t was mediated by the archbishop of Reims and formalised in the Treat y of Arras[501].  Comte Baudouin was eventually enfeoffed as BAUDOUI N VIII Count of Flanders  1 Mar 1192, on payment of 5,000 silver mark s to the French king doing homage to Emperor Heinrich VI King of Germa ny for the imperial part of Flanders[502].  On the death of his wif e in 1194, Baudouin lost Flanders which was inherited by their oldes t son.  The necrology of Brogne records the death "XVI Kal Jan" of "B alduinus comes Hannonie"[503].
m  (Apr 1169) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Flandre, daughter o f THIERRY I Count of Flanders & his second wife Sibylle d'Anjou [1145] -15 Nov 1194, Bruges St Donat).  The Flandria  Generosa  names (in or der) "Gertrudem et Margaretam" as the two daughters of Count Thierr y & his second wife[504].  The Annales  Elnonenses  records the wif e of "Balduinus comes Hainonie" being "sororem [Philippus comes Flandr ie]"[505].  The Flandria  Generosa  specifies that Marguerite marrie d "Radulfo filio predicti comitis Radulfi" who contracted leprosy an d from whom she was separated[506].  The Chronicon  Hanoniense  recor ds the marriage "tempore Paschali mense April 1169" of "Balduinus" an d "Margharetam… Mathie comitis Boloniensis sororem"[507].  Her secon d marriage was arranged by her brother Count Philippe in order to impr ove relations with the county of Hainaut.  She succeeded her brothe r in 1191 as MARGUERITE I Ctss of Flanders.  The Annales  Blandinie n ses  record the death in 1194 of "Margareta  comitissa Flandriæ"[508].   The Chronicon  Hanonienserecords the death in 1194 of "comitissa Ma rghareta" and her burial at "Brugis in monasterio Sancti Donaciani"[50 9].  The necrology of Brogne records the death "XV Kal Dec" of "Marga reta comitissa Hainonensis"[510].  The Flandria  Generosaspecifies th at she was buried in Bruges St Donat[511].
Count Baudouin VIII & his wife had seven children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FLANDERS,%20HAINAUT.htm#Sibyllediedaf ter1236] 
Baudoin V Comte d'Hainault; VIII Comte de (I6724)
 
34


EUDES de Bourgogne, son of HUGUES III Duke of Burgundy & his first wif e Alix de Lorraine (1166-Lyon 15 Jun or 6 Jul 1218, bur Abbaye de Cî t eaux).  "Hugo  dux Burgundie… Aeliz ducissa Burgundie cum Odone fili o meo" donated property to Cî teaux by charter dated 1171[356].  Th e Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Odonem et Alexandrum " as sons of "dux" by his first wife "Aaliz"[357].  "Hugo Burgundie d ux et Albonii comes" donated property to the Templars at Beaune, wit h the support of "Beatricis uxoris mee et… filiorum meorum Odonis, Ale xandri et Dalphini", by charter dated Dec 1188[358].  "Hugo… dux Burg undiæ et Albonii comes" confirmed "[cum] assensu filiorum meorum Oddo nis et Alexandri" the concession to Cluny by "consanguineæ meæ Matil di comitissæ Tornodori" by charter dated 1186[359].  He governed Bur gundy during his father's absence on Crusade from Jun 1190.  “Odo fil ius Hugonis ducis Burgundie” granted privileges to the abbey of Autu n St. Martin by charter dated 1191[360].  He succeeded his father i n 1192 asEUDES III Duke of Burgundy.  He acquired the powerful fortre ss of Vergy by his second marriage in 1199.  He renounced any right s over the duchy of Lorraine in 1203.  He commanded a division at th e battle of Bouvines in 1213.  The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis   record the death in 1218 of "Oddo dux Burgundie cruce signatus… fili us ducisse Lotoringie"[361].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fonta ines records the death in 1218 of "dux Odo Burgundie" and his burial " apud Cistercium"[362].  The 13th century obituary of the Eglise prima tiale de Lyon  records the death "II Non Jul" of "Odo dux Burgundie ca nonicus huius ecclesie qui dedit Sancto Stephano calicem argenteum dea uratum et vestimentum sacerdotale…"[363].  The necrology of Molesme r ecords the death "XVII Kal Jul" of "Odo dux Burgundie"[364].  He die d on his way to rejoin the Crusades[365].
m firstly  (Feb 1194, divorced on grounds of consanguinity 1195) as he r second husband, Infanta dona MAFALDA de Portugal  Ctss of Flanders , widow of PHILIPPE Count of Flanders, daughter of dom AFONSO I King o f Portugal & his wife Mathilde [Mafalda] de Savoie (1157-drowned off F urnes, West Flanders 16 May 1218, bur Abbaye de Clairvaux, Jura).  Th e Flandria  Generosaspecifies that on her (first) marriage she was giv en "Insulam et Duacum et plures… villas… iacentes, Caslethuin, Watenes , Bergas, Burburgium, totamque maritimmam regionem"[366].  The Flandr iaGenerosa  names "Mathildis regine Portusequalis" as wife of Count Ph ilippe, specifying that she arranged the repatriation of her husband' s body to "Claramvallem"[367].  After the death of her first husband , she received her widow's portion in southern and coastal Flanders bu t increased taxes so much that she provoked rebellions at Veurne [Furn es] and the castellany of Bourbourg[368].  A charter dated 1195 recor ds an agreement between the French king and "M. regina comitissa Fland rie" which records that the latter promised not to remarry after separ ating from "Odone duce Burgundie"[369].  The Flandria Generosa  recor ds that she was "amita" of "Fernando  filio regis Portusequalis" and i nstrumental in arranging his marriage to her first husband's great-nie ce Jeanne Ctss of Flanders[370].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-F ontaines records the death in 1218 of "comitissa vetus de Flandria rel icta comitis Philippi" and her burial next to her husband at Clairvaux [371].  She died when her carriage accidentally fell into a marsh nea r Furnes[372].
m secondly  (Summer 1199) ALIX de Vergy, daughter of HUGUES Seigneur d e Vergy & his wife Gisle de Trainel (1182-Prenois-en-Montage 15 Feb o r 8 Mar 1251, bur Abbaye de Cî teaux).  A charter dated 1197 record s that "Huo dominus Virgeii" donated property to the Templars, with th e consent of "domina Gilla uxor dicti Huonis, Guillermus, Huo filii su i, Alais et Nicholeta filie sue"[373].  "Odo dux Burgundie" confirme d the donation by "domina Egidia, mater Alaidis uxoris mee ducisse Bur gundie" to Colunge by charter dated Apr 1213[374].  Her origin is fur ther deduced from the necrology of Cî teaux which records the death "X VI Kal Jan" of "Hugo  Vergiaci  pater ducissa"[375].  Her parentage i s further confirmed by a charter dated 1 Sep 1236 in which “Hugo dux B urgundie” names “matrem meam et Guillermum de Vergeio, avunculum meum” [376].  She governed Burgundy on the death of her husband for her so n until his majority in 1231.  The necrology of Cî teaux records th e death "XV Kal Mar" of "Alix ducissa Burgundie"[377].  The necrolog y of Autun St. Martin records the death “II Kal Mar” of “Aalis de Verg y, uxor Odonis ducis Burg., mater Hugonis ducis”[378].
Duke Eudes III & his second wife had three children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BURGUNDY.htm#EudesBourbondied1266] 
Eudes III de Bourgogne Duc de Bourgogne (I8720)
 
35


FERNANDO Nú ñ ez "Niger/é l de Castrosiero", son of [NUÑ O Nú ñ ez & h is wife ---] -after 870).    His parentage is deduced from the charte r which records that “Monnio Nunnez et uxor mea Argilo” granted right s to Brañ osera dated 13 Oct 824, that “Gundisalvo Fernandiz comite” c onfirmed these rights granted by “avii mei Monnio Nunniz et Argilo” da ted 912, and that “Fernando Gundisalviz comite et uxor mea Urracha” co nfirmed the rights granted by “avi mei Monnio Nunniz et de Argilo” dat ed 1 Apr “Era TVI”[165].
m  GUTINA Dí az, daughter of [DIEGO Rodrí guez "Porcelos" Conde de Cas tilla & his [first/second] wife ---].  Pé rez de Urbel emphasises tha t there is no proof of Gutina's parentage.  However, it is suggeste d by her grandson conde Fernando Gonzá lez confirming donations to Sa n Fé lix made by conde Diego Rodrí guez[166].
Fernando & his wife had [four] children:
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CASTILE.htm#FernandoIIICastiledied125 2A] 
NÚÑEZ, Fernándo Niger él de Castrosiero (I5512)
 
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GARCÍ A Ferná ndez de Castilla, son of FERNANDO Gonzá lez Conde de Cas tilla & his first wife Sancha Sá nchez de Navarra -[Có rdoba] 1 Aug o r [29/30] Dec 995, bur Tres Santos, Có rdoba, later moved to San Pedr o de Cardeñ as).  “Comes Fredinandus Gundisalviz cum uxore mea Sanzi a comitissa et cum filiis meis Gundisalvus Fredinandi et Garsea Fredin andi et Sancio Fredinandi et Munio Fredinandi et domna Fronilde” donat ed the monastery of San Miguel de Javilla to San Pedro de Cardeñ as b y charter dated 941[292].  "Fredinando comes… cum uxore mea… Sancia c ometissa" donated property to the monastery of San Millá n de la Cogol la by charter dated 944, confirmed by "… Gundissalvo Fernandez, Sanci o Fernandez, Garcia Fernandez…"[293].  He succeeded his father in 97 0 as Conde  de Castilla.  He inherited a county considerably weakene d by Muslim attacks during the last years of his father's rule, and o n his accession accepted the suzerainty of Caliph al-Hakam II.  A cha rter dated 7 Sep 972 records the exchange of Covarrubias between the a bbot of Infantado de Covarrubias and "domno Garsea comite sive domna A va cometissa et filiis adque filiabus vestris"[294].  In 974, Conde G arcí a captured Deza.  "Garssia Ferdinandi… comes et imperator Castel le… cum uxore mea Abba comitisse" granted fuero  to Castrojeriz by cha rter dated 8 Mar 974, subscribed by "Sanctio filio nostra, Urraca fili a nostra…"[295].  His success was short-lived as he unsuccessfully be sieged Gormaz in Apr 975 and was defeated at Langa on the banks of th e River Duero[296].  Conde Garcí a allied himself with Ghalib bin Ab d al-Rahman, who had been Caliph al-Hakam II's trusted general, and op posed the rise to power of Muhammad bin Abi Amir "al-Mansur/the Victor ious" after the accession of al-Hakam's son Caliph Hisham in 976.  Ho wever, al-Mansur led several successful campaigns against Castile whic h was further weakened during the last years of the rule of Conde Garc í a, whose son eventually rebelled against him[297].  "Garsias Ferdin andez… cum coniuge mea Ava comitisa" founded the monastery of Infantad o de Covarrubias, offering "filiam… nostram Urracam" as a nun there, b y charter dated 25 Dec 978, confirmed by "Sancio Garsea, Gundisalbo Ga rsea… Sancio rex, Urraka regina, rege Scemeno, Fortuni Garsea, Didag o Aznariz, Tellu Gundisalbiz, Sancio Ennegonis, Tota comitissa, Fronil de comitissa…"[298].  The Annales Complutense  record that “Sancius G arsia” rebelled against “patrem suum comitem Garsia Fernandez” in 990[ 299].  "Garcia… comes" confirmed a donation to the monastery of San M iguel de Pedroso by charter dated 979, confirmed by "… Gundessalvo Fre dinandez, Gundissalvo Arderiz… Hani Godestioz, Didaco Fredinandez, Alv aro Sarrazinez, Didaco Scemenoz, Gotier Gomiz"[300].  The Chronicon B urgenserecords that “comes Garsea Ferdinandi” was captured and wounde d “VIII Kal Jan” in 995 “in ripa de Dorio”, died five days later whil e being taken to Có rdoba, and was buried “ad Caradignam”[301].  The  Annales Complutense  record the death “Kal Aug” in 995 of “Conde Garc i Fernandez” after being captured by the Moors[302].
m [958/61])  AVA de Ribagorza, daughter of RAIMUNDO [II] Conde de Riba gorza & his wife Gersende de Fezensac -after 995, bur San Pedro de Car deñ a).  The Codex  de Roda names "Regemundo ac domno Galindo seu dom na Aba" as the children of "Uernardus" and his wife[303].  The end 13 th century “Crò nica d´ Alaó Renovada” records that “Ova filia Regimu ndi” married “comitis Sanctii de Castella” (error for Garcí a)[304].   "Garcia  comes" and his wife "Ava" donated property to the monaster y of Arlanza by charter dated 12 Jul 970[305].  "Garsea Ferrandiz com ite… cum coniuge mea Ava comitissa" donated property to the monaster y of San Pedro de Cardeñ as by charter dated 26 Apr 971[306].  A char ter dated 7 Sep 972 records the exchange of Covarrubias between the ab bot of Infantado de Covarrubias and "domno Garsea comite sive domna Av a cometissa et filiis adque filiabus vestris"[307].  "Garssia Ferdina ndi… comes et imperator Castelle… cum uxore mea Abba comitisse" grante d fuero  to Castrojeriz by charter dated 8 Mar 974, subscribed by "San ctio filio nostra, Urraca filia nostra…"[308].  "Garsias Ferdinandez … cum coniuge mea Ava comitisa" founded the monastery of Infantado d e Covarrubias, offering "filiam… nostram Urracam" as a nun there, by c harter dated 25 Dec 978[309].  According to popular legend, she fomen ted revolt against her husband and even offered her hand in marriage t o a Muslim in exchange for killing Count Garcí a, but the historical a ccuracy of this is doubtful[310].
Conde Garcí a & his wife had [seven] children:
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CASTILE.htm#FernandoIIICastiledied125 2A] 
FERNÁNDEZ, García I Conde de Castilla (I5352)
 
37


GILBERT de Clare  "Strongbow", son of GILBERT FitzRichard de Clare & h is wife Adelisa de Clermont [1100][1461]-6 Jan 1148 or 1149, bur Tinte rn Abbey).  Guillaume de Jumiè ges names "Richardum qui ei successi t et Gislebertum et Walterium et unam filiam...Rohais” as the childre n of “Gislebertus ex filia comitis de Claromonte”[1462].  The Liber V itæ  of Thorney abbey lists "… Gilebt fili[us] Ricardi, Ricard fili[us ] eius… Aaliz uxor Gilbti filii Ricardi, Comes Gilbt, Galteri… filii s ui…"[1463].  “Adeliz, uxor Gilberti filii Ricardi, et Gillebertus e t Walterus et Baldewinus et Rohaisia pueri Gilberti” donated propert y to Thorney Monastery, by undated charter witnessed by “Gilberto fili o Gilberti, Galterio, Hervæ o, Baldwino fratribus eius et Rohaisia sor ore eorum”[1464].  He inherited the estates of his paternal uncles Ro ger de Clare (after 1131, in the baronies of Bienfaite and Orbec, Norm andy) and Walter de Clare (in 1138, as lord of Nether Gwent with the c astle of Strigoil, later known as Chepstow)[1465].  He was created Ea rl of Pembroke  in 1138 by King Stephen.  The Annales  Cambriæ  recor d the death in 1149 of "Gilbertus comes, qui Strangboga dictus est"[14 66].
m ISABEL de Beaumont, daughter of ROBERT de Beaumont-le-Roger Comte d e Meulan [Earl of Leicester] & his wife Isabelle de Vermandois [1102/0 7]-after 1172), previously mistress of Henry I King of England.  Guil laume de Jumiè ges records that "Giselbertus filius Gisleberti" marrie d “sororem Waleranni comitis Mellenti...Elizabeth” by whom he had “fil ium primogenitum...Richardum”[1467].  Henry II King of England confir med the donations to the nuns of St. Saens by "Isabel comitissa qui fu it uxor Gilleberti comitis" by charter dated to [1172/1182][1468].  “ Badero de Momuta et uxor sua Rohes” donated revenue in Monmouth to Mon mouth Priory by undated charter witnessed by "Galterus frater Gilleber ti consulis, qui ipsa die loco consulis uxorem meam michi dedit… comit issa Ysabel, Robertus filius Baderonis, Johannes filius Roberti, Thoma s filius Pagani…"[1469].
Earl  Gilbert  & his wife had two children. Earl  Richard  had two ill egitimate children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL1.htm]

Gilbert de Clare, 2nd son of Gilbert de Tonebruge, feudal Lord of Clar e, and brother of Richard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford, having obtai ned from King Henry I a license to enjoy all the lands he should win i n Wales, marched a large force into Cardiganshire and brought the whol e country under subjection; here he soon afterwards built two strong c astles and, his power increasing, he was created by King Stephen in 11 38, Earl of Pembroke. His lordship m. Elizabeth, sister of Waleran, Ea rl of Mellent, and dau. of Robert, Earl of Leicester, and had issue, R ichard, his successor, Baldwin, and Basilia. The earl d. in 1149 and w as s. by his elder son, Richard de Clare.
Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Lond on, 1883, p. 120, Clare, Earls of Pembroke
Earldom of Pembroke: Those who were created Earls of Pembroke before t he rise of the Herberts from the 15th century on were predominantly cl ose relatives of the reigning mocharch. This was not so in the first a nd historically most important case, however, Gilbert Fitz Gilbert o r de Clare was made Earl of Pembroke in 1138 by King Stephen, his elde r brother Richard Fitz Gilbert or de Clare being father of the Alice/A delaide who married William de Percy. In the period of unrest and inde cisive civil war known as the Anarchy, when followers of Stephen, Henr y I's nephew, struggled with the Empress Maud, Henry I's daughter, Gil bert Earl of Pembroke sided with each one. He already held Chepstow, o n the Welsh-English borders. In 1144 he pushed far into South Wales an d established himself at Carmarthen.
Burke's Peerage
GILBERT FITZGILBERT, styled also DE CLARE and probably Strongbow, wa s 2nd son of Gilbert FITZRICHARD, styled also DE CLARE, lord of Clare , Tonbridge and Cardigan, by Alice, daughter of HUGH, COUNT OF CLERMON T, which Alice married 2ndly, [? Bouchard] DE MONTMORENCY. He was bor n probably circa 1100. He attested charters of his father (died 1114 o r 1117) and of his elder brother Richard (died 1136) for Clare Priory ; and shortly after Richard's death he joined his mother, his 2 surviv ing brothers and his sister Rohese in granting a charter for Thorney A bbey. He became a great baron by obtaining the estates of his paterna l uncles Roger and Walter, who both died s.p.. He succeeded Roger (liv ing September 1131) in the baronies and castles of Bienfaite and Orbe c in Normandy, where he supported Stephen against the Angevin faction , and in the summer of 1136 he led an expedition against Exmes. Afterw ards he succeeded his uncle Walter as lord of Nether Gwent, with the c astle of Strigoil, later known as Chepstow, probably in March 1137/8 , and came to England. In 1138 Stephen created him EARL OF PEMBROKE, a nd Gilbert besieged and captured a castle or fortified town from the r ebels. Stephen also gave him the rape and castle of Pevensey. When th e Ernprcss Maud landed in England in the autumn of 1139, Gilbert march ed with the King to Arundel. At the battle of Lincoln (2 February 1140 /1) he was one of the nobles who fled when the first division of Steph en's army was put to flight; but he was among those who rallied to th e Queen after she had recovered London in June; and he was at Canterbu ry when Stephen was recrowned there at Christmas 1141. Early in 1142 h e accompanied the King on his progress to the north; after which Steph en sent him, with the Earl of Essex, to evict the rebels from the Isl e of Ely. Gilbert joined Geoffrey's plot against Stephen; but after th e collapse of the conspiracy he appears to have been with Stephen at t he siege of Oxford, September-December 1142. In 1144 he invaded Sout h Wales and, captured or built Carmarthen Castle. In 1147 he rebelled , when Stephen refused to give him the castles surrendered by his neph ew Gilbert, 1st Earl of Hertford; whereupon the King made a forced mar ch to his nearest castle and nearly captured him. Stephen took this ca stle and two others belonging to Gilbert, and invested Pevensey, but l eft his followers to blockade it. However the Earl appears to have mad e his peace before his death in the following year. During the war h e was in possession of the Montfitchet fief, as guardian to his nephew , Gilbert de Montfitchet, and as such became involved in a dispute wit h Gloucester Abbey about certain churches. He was a benefactor to th e abbey of Tintern and the priories of Lewes, Southwark and St. Neots , and the Templars. He married Isabel (or Elizabeth), daughter of Robe rt DE BEAUMONT, COUNT OF MEULAN and 1st EARL OF LEICESTER, by Isabel ( or Elizabeth), daughter of Hugh the Great, COUNT OF VERMANDOIS, younge r son of Henry I, King of France, which Isabel (Countess of Meulan) ma rried, 2ndly, William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey. Gilbert died pro bably 6 January 1147/8, or possibly 1148/9, and was buried in Tinter n Abbey. His widow was living in 1172.
Complete Peerage X:348-52 
Gilbert de Clare Earl of Pembroke (I6193)
 
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GÓ MEZ Gonzá lez, son of conde GONZALO Salvadó rez & his second wife S ancha Gó mez -killed in battle Candespina 26 Oct 1111, bur San Salvado r de Oñ a).    ["Aldefonsus totus Ispanie rex" donated property to th e monastery of San Millá n de la Cogolla by charter dated 1077, witnes sed by "… Gomessanus comes de Borobia…"[1831].  This charter is earl y for the attribution of the comital title to Gó mez Gonzá lez, whic h suggests either that it is spurious, that it is misdated, or that i t applies to another Conde Gó mez.]  "… Gomez Gundisalvus…" subscribe d the charter dated 17 Aug 1077 which records an agreement between Bis hop Diego Pelá ez and the abbot of Antealtares, San Fagundo[1832].  A lfé rez of Alfonso VI King of Castile. “...Gomez Gonzaluiz armiger reg is...” confirmed the charter dated 14 Sep 1084 under which “Pelagio Ue rmudez...cum avia mea domna Fronille” donated “in Castro Auageue mea m porcionem...in Castro Benbibre...in Melgarello...” to Sahagú n[1833] .  "… Domna Sancia… cum filio suo domno Gomiz" confirmed a charter o f the monastery of San Millá n de la Cogolla dated 1086[1834].   Conde .  "Adefonsus… Ispanie imperator" permitted the abbey of Silos to est ablish outposts near the abbey, with the consent of "uxoris mee Bert e regine", by charter dated 20 Jan [1096/98], confirmed by "… comes… G omiz Gonç alviz armiger regis…"[1835].  "...Armiger regis Gomez Gunde saluiz..." confirmed the charter dated 14 Mar 1099 under which King Al fonso VI donated the monastery of Santa Marí a de Algadefe to Eslonza[ 1836].  Tenente de Bureba[1837].   Conde  en Castilla between 1104 an d 1110.  "Comite Gomez Gonzaluez et uxor mea Urraca cometissa" donate d the church of San Miguel "in villa… Busto que fuit de fratre meo Fre dinando" to "Michaeli Didaz" by charter dated 6 May 1107, witnessed b y "senior Lop Sangyez de Ripa Ota… Gonzaluo Didaz que tenet Petralata… "[1838].  "… Gomez Guncaluiz comes…" subscribed the charter dated 1 4 May 1107 under which "Adefonsus… Toletani imperii rex… cum… uxore me a Helisabet regina" approved the mint of Santiago de Compostela[1839].   Queen Urraca donated property to Leó n Santa Marí a by charter date d 22 Jul 1109, subscribed by "Petrus Ansuriz Carrionensium comes, Gume z Gunzaluiz Castellanorum comes, Rudericus Munioni Asturensium comes , Froila Didaci Legionensium comes, Petrus Froilaz Gallecie comes, Sua rius Ueremudiz consul Gallecie, Aluarus Fanniz Toletule dux, Munio Gut erriz maiordomus palacii, Petrus Gunzaluiz armiger regis, Fernandus Gu nzaluiz, Adefonsus Telliz, Tellus Telliz, Fernandus Telliz"[1840].     The dating clause of a charter dated 1110, under which Alfonso I K ing of Aragon donated property to Valvanera, records “...Gomessanus, c omes Pont Corbum et Ceresum...”[1841].    "Urraca… tocius Ispanie regi na" confirmed rights of the monastery of San Millá n de la Cogolla b y charter dated Aug 1110, confirmed by "… Gomiz Conzalvez comes Castel lanorum…"[1842].  The dating clause of a charter dated 6 Jun 1110, un der which the monastery of Sahagú n granted privileges to the inhabita nts of Població n de Soto, records“...comite don Gomez in Kastella e t in Auia..."[1843].   The Annales Complutense  record that “Comitem D omno Gomez” was killed “VII Kal Nov… in campo de Spina” in 1111 by “Re x Adefonsus Aragonensis et Comes Enricus”[1844].  The Cró nica Latina   records that “el conde Gó mez, llamado de Candespina” was killed i n battle against Alfonso I King of Aragon at Sepú lveda[1845].
m URRACA Muñ oz, daughter of [conde MUÑ O Gonzá lez & his wife condes a Mayor] -before 1130).  "Comite Gomez Gonzaluez et uxor mea Urraca c ometissa" donated the church of San Miguel "in villa… Busto que fuit d e fratre meo Fredinando" to "Michaeli Didaz" by charter dated 6 May 11 07, witnessed by "senior Lop Sangyez de Ripa Ota… Gonzaluo Didaz que t enet Petralata…"[1846].  It is not certain that Urraca can be the dau ghter of Muñ o Gonzá lez as neither she nor her children are named i n the 20 Sep 1120 charter of her supposed sister Jimena Muñ oz, whic h appears to refer to all the donor´ s relatives with whom she held a n interest in the monastery of Santa Cruz de Castañ eda.  Barton cite s a charter dated 17 Jun 1126 in which her son Rodrigo Gó mez names hi s mother Urraca Muñ oz[1847].  According to Torres[1848], the widow o f Gó mez Gonzá lez "de Candaspina" married secondly, as his first wife , Beltrá n de Risnel.
Mistress: URRACA Queen of Castile and Leó n, daughter of ALFONSO VI Ki ng of Castile and Leó n & his third wife Berta de Bourgogne-Comté (la te 1080[1849]-Saldañ a 8 Mar 1126, bur Leó n, Monastery of San Isidro) .    The Cró nica Latina  records that “el conde Gó mez, llamado de Ca ndespina” was “excesivamente y má s de lo que convení a familiar a l a reina”[1850].
Gó mez & his wife had [five] children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SPANISH%20NOBILITY%20LATER%20MEDIEVAL .htm#TeresaYanezLimiaMMendoGarciaSousa] 
GONZÁLEZ, Gómez Conde en Castilla (I66314)
 
39


GUILLAUME [II] de Marseille, son of GUILLAUME [I] Vicomte de Marsei ll e & his first wife Belieldis --- -before 14 May 1050).  "Guillelmus … vicescomes… cum filiis suis Pontio et Guillelmo" are named in a char ter of "Honoratus… sedis Massiliensis episcopus" dated 31 Oct 966[319] .  He succeeded his father as Vicomte  de Marseille.  “Pontius abba ” confirmed an agreement between “Adalardum abbatem S. Victoris et Wil lelmum vicecomitem Massiliæ” relating to “villa Cathedræ”, by charte r dated 993 which specifies that Guillaume and Pons were brothers[320] .  "Wilelmus vicecomes Massiliensis" donated property to St. Victor d e Marseille by charter dated 13 Oct 1004 subscribed by "…domnus Pontiu s episcopus, Guilelmus frater suus, Fulco, Aicardus… "[321].  "Wilelm us comes Provincie conjuxque mea Girberga cum filio nostro...Wilelmo " donated "in comitatu Sisterico, intra terminos de villa… Manuasca" t o Marseille St. Victor by charter dated 1013, subscribed by “Wilelmu s comes Provincie...domna Guirberga...comitissa, domnus Wilelmus eorum ...soboles, Guillelmus vicecomes, Fulco frater eius, Accelena et Odila , Villelmus filius Villemi...”[322].
m firstly  (before 15 Oct 1004) AISCELINE, daughter of [GUILLAUME & hi s wife ---] -before 1019).  "Wilelmus comes Provincie conjuxque mea G irberga cum filio nostro...Wilelmo" donated "in comitatu Sisterico, in tra terminos de villa… Manuasca" to Marseille St. Victor by charter da ted 1013, subscribed by “Wilelmus comes Provincie...domna Guirberga... comitissa, domnus Wilelmus eorum...soboles, Guillelmus vicecomes, Fulc o frater eius, Accelena et Odila, Villelmus filius Villemi...”[323].   "Nos fratres Wilelmus atque Fulco una cum uxoribus nostris Accelena … atque Odila simulque cum liberis nostris Guilelmo, Poncio, Aicardo a tque Fulcone" donated property to St. Victor de Marseille by charter d ated 1014[324].  "Guilelmus et Fulcho frater meus… vicecomites" mad e a donation dated 8 Jan [1014/19] jointly with "uxores nostre Aicelin a et Odila"[325].  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1 3 Oct 1059 under which "Gauzfredus et Vugo [ancestors of the Rians an d Baux families]...et Vuilelmus juvenis nepos noster  [son of Aiscelin e, see below] et uxor sua Adalgrada et filii sui Fulcho et Gauzfredu s et Pontius et Aicardus..." donated "ecclesiam sancte Marie [et] sanc ti Johannis...in territorio castri...Sparronis" to Marseille St. Victo r[326].
m secondly  (before 1019) ETIENNETTE, daughter of --- -1055 or after).   "Vilelmus quoque vicecomes Massilie et uxor eius Stephana necnon fi lii illorum Poncius videl, episcopus atque fratres sui Vilelmus iuveni s et Aicardus sive Josfredus, Stephanus quoque atque Bertrannus necno n et Petrus" signed a charter dated 1039[327].  The primary source wh ich confirms her origin has not yet been identified.  "Willelmus et u xor mea Stephana et filii mei Poncius episcopi, Willelmus atque Aicard us et Gaufredus et Bertrannus et Petrus" signed a charter dated 13 Ap r 1045[328].  "Gauzfredus marchio sive comes Provincie" consented t o the donation by "Guillelmus vicecomes Massiliensis et uxor mea Steph ana et filii mei… Stephanus et Bertrannus et Petrus" to St. Victor d e Marseille by charter dated 1045[329].    "Petrus  Wilelmi condam vi cecomitis Massiliensis filius et mater mea domna Stephana et uxor mea … Theucia" donated property to St. Victor de Marseille by charter date d 1055[330].  Her parentage is unknown.  Szabolcs de Vajay states th at “il reste é tabli qu’elle appartenait au clan des Baux, é tant la f ille de Geoffroy seigneur de Rians”[331].  If that is correct, she wa s Etiennette, daughter of Geoffroi de Rians & his wife Scocia ---.  S zabolcs de Vajay cites numerous sources supposedly in support of his s tatement, but none of them confirms his supposition.  He says that th is parentage would explain the family relationships between Bertrand C omte de Provence (son of her supposed daughter Etiennette [Douce]) an d Aicard de Marseille Archbishop of Arles and Rostain de Fos Archbisho p of Aix.  The former was the son of the supposed older half-brothe r of Etiennette [Douce], so the parentage of the mother of Etiennett e [Douce] is irrelevant.  In the case of Archbishop Rostain de Fos, t he reconstruction of the Fos family shown in this document suggests th at their relationship with the Baux family may have been through the w ife of the archbishop’s brother which, if correct, would also indicat e that it was not relevant in determining the family origin of the sec ond wife of Guillaume [II] Vicomte de Marseille.  It is suggested tha t the indications provided by Szabolcs de Vajay are insufficiently pre cise to provide a sound basis for speculating on the parentage of Vico mte Guillaume [II]’s second wife and that the affiliation which he sug gests is far from “é tablie”, using his word.
Guillaume  [II] & his first wife had eight children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/provaixmar.htm#EtiennetteDouceMarseil leM1GeoffroyProven] 
Guillaume II Vicomte de Marseille (I9509)
 
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He was "a man of learning and business," and was much employed in impo rtant affairs by his sovereigns ; filling the posts of Treasurer of th e Chamber and Privy Councillor to Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Mary. A t the suppression of the religious houses under Henry VIII., he was "a ppointed one of the Commissioners for visiting them, and afterwards wa s made one of the auditors of the Court of Augmentation," which was in stituted for the purpose of augmenting the revenues by the suppressio n of the monasteries ; for his services he received three valuable man ors in Hertfordshire which, later on, he exchanged for other lands, i n Derbyshire and other counties. He was also knighted by Henry VIII.
[Stately Homes of England]

--------------

Sir William Cavendish
Posted 11 May 2012 by benmertz

Rt. Hon. Sir William Cavendish was born in 1505. He was the son of Tho mas Cavendish and Alice Smith.2,3 He married, firstly, Margaret Bostoc k, daughter of Edmund Bostock.3 He married, secondly, Elizabeth Conyng sby, daughter of Thomas Conyngsby.3 He married, thirdly, Elizabeth Har dwicke, daughter of John Hardwicke, in 1547.3 He died circa 1562.3
Rt. Hon. Sir William Cavendish was Gentleman-Usher to Cardinal Wolsey. 3 He held the office of Treasurer of the Chamber to King Henry VIII. 3 He was a commissioner for suppressing various religious houses, a s a result of which he amassed huge territorial holdings.3 He was inve sted as a Privy Counsellor (P.C.).3 He held the office of Treasurer o f the Chamber to King Edward VI.3 He held the office of Treasurer of t he Chamber to Queen Mary. 3 Children of Rt. Hon. Sir William Cavendis h and Elizabeth Hardwicke Frances Cavendish+ b. 15484 Henry Cavendish + b. c 1549, d. 12 Oct 16163 Sir William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devons hire+ b. 27 Dec 1552, d. 3 Mar 1625/263 Sir Charles Cavendish+ b. c 15 53, d. 4 Apr 16173 Elizabeth Cavendish+ b. 1555, d. 21 Jan 15823 Ma ry Cavendish+ b. 1556, d. 16321 Citations
[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. Whit e, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Pee rage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingd om, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959 ; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000 ), volume I, page 257. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage. [S37 ] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107 th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage ( Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 1126. Hereinafter cite d as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition. [S37] Charles Mosl ey, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 1, page 1127 . [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume VII, page 303 . 
CAVENDISH, Sir William (I46270)
 
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Infante don CARLOS de Navarra,  son of FELIPE III King of Navarre [Evr eux-Capet] & his wife Juana II Queen of Navarre [Capet]  (Châ teau d'E vreux, Eure 17 May 1332-Pamplona 1 Jan 1387, bur Pamplona, Cathedral o f Santa Marí a la Real).  Comte d'Evreux, d'Angoulê me et de Mortai n 1344, by donation of Philippe VI King of France following the deat h of his father.  He succeeded his mother in 1349 as CARLOSII  "el Ma lo/le Mauvais" King of Navarre, under the regency firstly of Philipp e VI King of France and, after his death in 1350, of Jean II King of F rance until 12 Feb 1352.  Crowned 27 Jun 1350 at Pamplona, Cathedra l of Santa Marí a la Real.  Ayala´ s Cró nica de Pedro I  records tha t “Don Carlos Rey de Navarra é el Infante Don Phelipe su hermano” vis ited Pedro I King of Castile “en Burgos” in 1351[700].  Named Lieuten ant of Languedoc by Jean II King of France when he was declared of ag e 12 Feb 1352.  Throughout his life he considered himself the rightfu l King of France, through his mother, and plotted against the French k ing.  Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger, by the Treaty of Mantes 22 Feb 1354 .  After allying himself with Edward III King of England, with whom h e agreed to divide France, he was arrested at Rouen 5 Apr 1356.  He e scaped from the châ teau d'Arleux en Artois 8 Nov 1357, to resume hi s conspiring in France.  Proclaimed Captain of Paris 15 Jun 1358.  C omte de Longueville 1363 on the death of his brother Philippe.  He wa s obliged to accept peace at Paris 6 March 1365, under which he recove red Evreux but lost Mantes, Meulan and Longueville, and renounced hi s claims over Burgundy (succession to which he had claimed after deat h in 1361 of Philippe I "de Rouvres" Duke of Burgundy), Champagne an d Blois, in return for which he was compensated with Montpellier[701].   On the death of Enrique II de Trastá mara King of Castile in 1379 , Carlos captured Logroñ o.  Juan I King of Castile invaded Navarre , and imposed the peace of Briones.  Carlos was accused of trying t o poison the King of Castile, and convicted 2 March 1386.
m (Châ teau de Vivier-en-Brie, Coutevroult 12 Feb 1352)  JEANNE de Fra nce, daughter of JEAN II "le Bon" King of France & his first wife Bonn e of Bohemia (Châ teauneuf-sur-Loire, Loiret 24 Jun 1343-Evreux, Eur e 3 Nov 1373, bur é glise de l'Abbaye royale de St. Denis).    The Chr onique des rè gnes de Jean II et de Charles V  records the death 3 No v 1373 “à Evreux” of “madame Jehanne suer du roy de France et femme d u roy de Navarre”[702].
Mistress (1): CATALINA de Esparza, daughter of --- -after 1388).    Ca rlos III King of Navarre ordered a pension payable in 1388 to "Juana s u hermana bastarda y á Catalina de Esparza su madre"[703].
Mistress (2): CATALINA de Lizaso, daughter of --- -after 1381).    Car los II King of Navarre ordered maintenance payments for "Catalina de L izaso madre de Leonel nuestro fijo" in 1381[704].
King Carlos II  & his wife had eight children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NAVARRE.htm#CarloIIdied1387] 
Marie (I18924)
 
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JEAN de Joinville, son of SIMON Seigneur de Joinville & his second wif e Beatrix d'Auxonne [Bourgogne-Comté ] [1224/25]-24 Dec 1317, bur St . Laurent de Joinville).  His birth date is estimated from his explai ning his absence from the battle of Taillebourg in 1242 “car je n’avoi e onques lors hauberc vestu” (indicating that he was not yet a knight) [2582], bearing his mind his betrothal in 1230.  His parentage is con firmed by a charter dated Dec 1255 in which “Symons de Jenvile sires d e Jay” names “mes frè res Jehans signour de Jenvile, senechaz de Campa igne et Joffroy de Jenvile signor de Vauquelour”[2583]. Seigneur de Jo inville.  “Jehans sires de Joinville seneschaus de Champaigne” confir med the donation of revenue “de Syrefontaine” made to Mureau by “signo urs Thomas chevalier de Braz...signour Perron son freire” and “Joffro i mon freire signour de Vaucolor” by charter dated Aug 1255[2584].  & quot;Jean  de Joinville", with the consent of "sa femme Ali x et de ses fils Geoffroy et Jean", sold "la grange de Baill y..." to Ecurey abbey, by charter dated 19 Oct 1266[2585].  Hist orian of Louis IX King of France.  The necrology of Joinville St. Lau rent records the deaths 11 Jul of "dominus Johannes dominus de Jo invilla uxores eius et liberi ipsorum" and 24 Dec of "dominu s Johannes dominus de Joinvilla et domina Aelidis eius uxor domina d e Rinello" and their donations[2586].  Considering the charter d ated 15 Nov 1317 in which his son Anseau is described as seigneur de R eynel (see below), the second date is to be preferred.  The year of J ean’s death is set by Anseau’s charter dated Jun 1318 in which he is c alled seigneur de Joinville.
m firstly  (Betrothed 11 Aug 1230, [1245]) ALIX de Grandpré, daughte r of HENRI [IV] Comte de Grandpré & his wife Marie de Garlande -befor e 1261).  "Simon  seigneur de Joinville, sé né chal de Champagne " declared that Thibaut IV Comte de Champagne had letters relatin g to the proposed marriage between "Jean, fils de Simon et de B é atrix, fille d'Etienne comte d'Auxonne" and "Alix, fille d e Marie comtesse de Grandpré", by charter dated 11 Aug 1230[2587] .  Given Jean de Joinville’s estimated date of birth, it is unlikel y that this marriage took place before the mid-1340s.
m secondly  (before May 1262) ALIX de Reynel, daughter of GAUTHIER Sei gneur de Reynel & his wife --- -before 1288).  "Jean  de Joinvil le", with the consent of "sa femme Alix de Reynel", con firmed donations made by "son beau-pè re Gautier de Reynel" ; to Benoî tevaux, by charter dated May 1262[2588].  "Jean  de J oinville", with the consent of "sa femme Alix et de ses fil s Geoffroy et Jean", sold "la grange de Bailly..." to E curey abbey, by charter dated 19 Oct 1266[2589].  Her date of death i s established by the charter dated 1288 under which [her son] "Je an de Joinville s. de Reynel" reached agreement with “son pè re J ean s. de Joinville” concerning “la terre de Reynel qui lui é tait é c hu par la mort de sa mè re”[2590].
Jean & his first wife had two children. Jean & his second wife had si x children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CHAMPAGNE%20NOBILITY.htm#JeanJoinvill ediedafter1293] 
Jean Seigneur de Joinville (I67730)
 
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JEANde Dampierre, son of GUILLAUME [II] Seigneur de Dampierre & hiswif e Marguerite II Ctss of Flanders and Hainaut -1258).  The Genealogic a Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Guillelmum Guodnem et Iohannem" as the three sons of "Guillelmo domino de Dampetra [et] Marg aretæ", specifying that "primo mortuo sine liberisin tornramento apu d Trasegnies"[1356].  Matthew Paris specifies that his parents had "tw o others" when herecords the parentage of his brother Guillaume, but d oes not name the otherchildren[1357].  The Annales Blandinienses nam e "Iohannde Dampetra"as brother of Guy Count of Flanders, when recordi ng the liberation of the twobrothers from captivity in Holland[1358].   He succeeded his father in 1231 as Seigneur de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube, de Sompuis et de St. Dizier, Vicomte de Troyes and Conné table de Cham pagne.  He was captured at the battle of WeSt. Capelle 4 Jul 1253 b y his half-brother Jean d'Avesnes Comte de Hainaut, released in earl y 1257.  In Jun 1256 he recognised that theofficer of Conné table d e Champagne was not hereditary[1359].
m (9 Mar 1250) as herfirst marriage, LAURE de Lorraine,daughter of MAT HIEU II Duke of Lorraine & his wife Catherine de Limbourg([1234/37]-af ter 3 May 1288).  She married secondly (after 29 Mar 1266) Guillaum e [II] deVergy Seigneur de Mirebeau et d'Autrey, seneschal of Burgundy .
Jean & his wife had two children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CHAMPAGNE%20NOBILITY.htm#_Toc39474140 3] 
DE CHAMPAGNE, Jean de Dampierre Seigneur de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube de Sompuis et (I64088)
 
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JUAN Ferná ndez, son of FERNANDO Arias Baticela & his wife Teresa Verm ú dez de Traba -after 1239).  The Nobiliario  of Pedro Conde de Barcel os names "D. Juan Fernandez el Bueno de Lima, D. Ruy Fernandez Codorni z, D. Gil Fernandez, D. Maria Fernandez, D. Teresa Fernandez" as the c hildren of "D. Fernandarias Baticela llamado el Dañ o" and his wife "D . Teresa Vermuiz"[1789].    Tenente de Limia y Monterroso.  Mayordom o of Alfonso IX King of Leó n 28 Mar 1192 to 23 Oct 1193, and 27 Apr 1 194 to 4 Oct 1194[1790].  "…Iohanne Fernandi regis maiordomo tenent e Limiam… " subscribed the charter dated 17 Jun 1193 under which Alfon so IX King of Leó n granted the right to mint gold coins to Santiago d e Compostela[1791].   “Terasia Vermudi” donated vines “in burgo Ripe A vie” to the monastery of Fiã es, in the presence of “filio meo domno J ohanne Fernandi...ceteris filiis et filiabus...cum nepote meo Fernand o Johannis”, by undated charter dated to [1208/19][1792].
m firstly BERENGUELA Alfonso, daughter of ALFONSO Hermí guez & his wif e Urraca Alfonso de Rivadouro.  The Livro Velho  names "D. Beringueyr a Affonso de Bayã o" as wife of "Joã o Fernandes o bom de Lima" and mo ther of "Fernando Annes de Lima"[1793].    The Nobiliario  of Pedro Co nde de Barcelos records that "Juan Fernandez el Bueno de Lima" marrie d "D. Berenguera Alonso de Bayon"[1794].
m secondly MARÍ A Pá ez de Ribeira  Señ ora de Villa del Conde, former ly mistress of SANCHO I “o Poblador” King of Portugal, daughter of PEL AYO Muñ oz & his wife Urraca Vá zquez de Veirao.    TheNobiliario  o f Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. " as the children of "D. " and hi s wife "D. ", adding in another passage that "Juan Fernandez el Buen o de Lima" married "D. Maria Paez Ribera" as his second wife, an earli er passage adding that "D. Maria Paez de Ribera" was the mother of "D . Gil Sanchez, D. Rodrigo Sanchez, D. Teresa Sanchez, D. Constanç a Sa nchez" children of "D. Sancho Rey de Portugal"[1795].
Juan & his first wife had one child. Juan & his second wife had four c hildren.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SPANISH%20NOBILITY%20LATER%20MEDIEVAL .htm#TeresaYanezLimiaMMendoGarciaSousa] 
FERNANDEZ, Juan de Lima (I8451)
 
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LEOPOLD von Habsburg, son of ALBRECHT II "Dem Weise" Duke of Austri a & his wife Johanna von Pfirt (Vienna 1 Nov 1351-killed in battle Sem pach 9 Jul 1386, bur Kö nigsfelden).    The History of Henricus Dapife r de Diessenhoven  names "Rudolfo primogenito… Friderico, Lupoldo et A lberto" as the four sons of "domini Alberti Austrie Stirie ac Karinthi e ducis" and his wife "domine Iohanne ducisse… filia comitis Phiretaru m"[558].    He succeeded, jointly with his older brother Albrecht, the ir brother Duke Rudolf IV in 1365 as LEOPOLD III Duke of Austria  an d Steiermark.    Under the Treaty of Neuburg-im-Mü rztal 25 Sep 1379 , he became Duke of Steiermark, Carinthia, Carniola and Istria, Graf v on Tirol.  Herr von Terst 1382.    The necrology of Wilten records th e death "VII Id Jul 1386" of "Leopoldi archiducis Austriæ"[559].  The  Necrologium Austriacum  names Leopold as fourth son of Duke Albrech t II, records his death "1386 9 Jun… erschlagen… von der Sweitzern un d Zuerich" and his burial at Kö nigsfelden[560].  The necrology of Ga ming records the death "1386 VII Id Iul" of "Leupaldus fil fundatoris" [561].
m  (Vienna 23 Feb 1365) VERDE [Viridis] Visconti, daughter of BERNAB Ò Visconti Signor of Milan & his wife Beatrice [Regina] della Scala [ 1350]-Sittich, Carniola before 1 Mar 1414, bur Sittich).    The Annale s Mediolanenses  record the marriage 13 Jan 1366 of "Dominus Barnabos … Dominam Viridem filiam suam" and "Domino Leopoldo Duci Austriæ"[562] .  Giovanni di Musso´ s Chronicon Placentinum  records the death in J ul 1365 of "Rodulphus Dux Austriæ" who had come to Milan for the marri age of "suo fratre" and "filiam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis"[563].     The Necrologium Austriacum  refers to the wife of Duke Leopold a s "herrn Barlaba tochter von Mayland"[564].
Duke Leopold III & his wife had seven children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/AUSTRIA.htm#LeopoldIIIdied1386B] 
Leopold III Herzog von Österreich (I24800)
 
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MAELSECHNAILL, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- [949/50]-Cró Inis of Lou gh Ennell 2 Sep 1022).  His date of birth is estimated from the Annal s of the Four Masters which record the birth in 925 of “Brian son of C einnedigh” (extremely unlikely date) adding that this was “24 years be fore Maelseachlainn son of Domnhall”[87].  The Annals of Tigernach re cord “the first expedition of MaelSechnaill the Great “Moir”) from Dub lin, when he broke and cut down the wood” in [973/74][88].  The Annal s of Tigernach record the death of “Domnall mac Muirchertaigh King o f Tara” in [978/79] and the accession of “Mael Sechnaill Mor”[89].  K ing of Tara.   High King of Ireland.  The Annals of the Four Master s record 979 as “the first year of Maelseachlainn Mor son of Domhnal l son of Donnchadh son of Flann in sovereignty of Ireland”[90].  Th e Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cenné tig… and M ael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temuir” divided Ireland between t hem in 997 “Leth Cuinn to Mael Sechnaill and Leth Moga to Brian”[91].   The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall, son of Olaf, crownpri nce of the Foreigners” was killed in battle by “Mael Sechnaill the Gre at, son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, son of Fland… King of Ireland” a t “Tara” in [978/79][92].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Tomar ´ s ring and Carlus´ s sword were forcibly taken by MaelSechnaill so n of Domnall from the Foreigners of Dublin” in [993/94], presumably re ferring to powerful symbols of power[93].  The Annals of Tigernach re cord the death in [1018/22] of “Mael-Sechlainn the Great son of Donnch ad overking of all Ireland” at “Cró Inis of Lough Ennell in the 43r d year of his reign”[94].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mae l Sechnaill son of Domnall son of Donnchad overking of Ireland" d ied in 1022 “in the 43rd year of his reign and the 73rd of his age … 2 Sep”[95].
m firstly MOR, daughter of DONNCHAD mac Cellach King of Ossory & his w ife --- -[984/85]).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [984 /85] of “Mor, daughter of Dondchad son of Cellach, and queen of Irelan d”[96].  This passage does not name Mor´ s husband.  However, Maelse chnaill is the only person described in other passages in the Annals a s king of Ireland at that time.
m secondly MOR, daughter of TAIDG maic Cathail maic Concobair & his wi fe --- -[990/91]).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [990/ 91] of “Mor, daughter of Tadg, son of Cathal, son of Conchobar, quee n of Ireland”[97].  This passage does not name Mor´ s husband.  Howe ver, Maelsechnaill is the only person described in other passages in t he Annals of Tigernach as king of Ireland at that time.
m [thirdly] as her third husband, GORMLAITH, widow of OLAF Sihtricsso n King of Dublin  and separated wife, secondly, of BRIAN Boroma  Kin g of Ireland, daughter of -1030).  Her third marriage is confirmed b y the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 1030 of “Go rmlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the fo reigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobha r son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair”[98].  It is assumed that Mae lsechnaill separated from Gormlaith as he is recorded with another wif e before Gormlaith died.
m  [fourthly] MAELMAIRE, daughter of OLAF Sihtricson King of Dubli n & his wife --- -1021).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the d eath in 1021 of “Maelmaire daughter of Amhlaeibh, wife of Maelseachlai nn son of Domhnall”[99].
Mailschnaill & his [first/second] wife had four children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/IRELAND.htm#Maelsechnailldied1018B] 
Maelsechnaill King of Ireland (I68840)
 
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MAGNUS Olavsson, illegitimate son of OLAV III "Kyrre/the Gentle" Kin g of Norway & his mistress --- -killed in battle Ulster 24 May 1103).    Morkinskinna  names “Magnus nicknamed… berfœ ttr and… Styrjaldar (B attle-Age) Magnus” as son of King Olav and his concubine “Thó ra, th e daughter of Á rni lá gi”[364].  Snorre names Magnus as son of Kin g Olav and Thora, commenting that he was brought up at the king's cour t[365].  He succeeded his first cousin in 1095 as MAGNUS III  "Berrf ø tt/Barfod/Barfot/Barefoot" King of Norway. Morkinskinna  records tha t Magnus expelled “Sveinn, the son of Haraldr flettir (Despoiler)” fro m Trondheim, forcing him to flee to Denmark where he remained “until h e became reconciled with King Eysteinn Magnusson”[366].  Saxo Grammat icus records that King Magnus attacked the Hallanders but was surprise d, when barefoot, by an unexpected charge made by them, hence his nick name[367].  He invaded Orkney in 1098, captured joint Jarls Paul I an d Erlend II, and declared his son as king of Orkney and the Isles.  H e also captured the Isle of Man and Anglesey, forced the flight of Hug h Earl of Chester and killed Hugh Earl of Shrewsbury[368].  Florenc e of Worcester records that "rex  Norreganorum Magnus filius regis Ola vi filii regis Haroldi Harvagri" invaded the Orkneys and Anglesey in [ 1098][369].   Morkinskinna  records that Magnus III King of Norway “wa s much smitten” with “the emperor´ s daughter… with whom he had exchan ged messages… Matilda”[370].  William of Malmesbury records that he w as killed after attacking Ireland[371].  Snorre records his death i n battle in Ireland[372].   Orkneyinga Saga  records that King Magnu s was killed “in Ulster, on St Bartholomew´ s day”[373].
m  (1101) as her first husband, MARGRETA "Fredkulla/peace-bringing wom an" of Sweden, daughter of INGE I Stenkilsson King of Sweden -4 Nov [1 130], bur Roskilde).  Snorre records that the marriage of "King Inge' s daughter Margaret" and King Magnus was agreed at "Konghelle on the G aut river" under the agreement which settled disputes between the king s of Norway, Denmark and Sweden[374].  According to Saxo, her first m arriage took place after the peace meeting between the three Scandinav ian kings at Gotaalv in 1101, hence her nickname[375].  She married s econdly [1105]) Niels King of Denmark.  Snorre names "Queen Margaret , a daughter of King Inge, who had before been married to King Magnu s Barefoot" as the wife of "the Danish king Nikolas, a son of Svein Ul fson"[376].
Mistress (1): ---.  Snorre records that King Magnus's son Eystein "wa s of a mean mother"[377].
Mistress (2): THORA  ---.  Snorre names Thora as the mother of King M agnus's son Sigurd[378].
Mistress (3): SIGRID Saxesdatter, daughter of ---.  Snorre names "Sig rid, a daughter of Saxe of Vik… a respectable man in the Trondheim cou ntry" as the mother of King Magnus's son Olav[379].   Morkinskinnaname s “Sigrí dr, the daughter of Saxi from Vik… sister of Ká ri from Austr á tt… called Ká ri King´ s brother” as mother of King Sigurd´ s son Ki ng Olav[380].
Mistress (4): ---.  The name of King Magnus's fourth mistress is no t known.
[Mistress (5): ---, an Irish woman.  Snorre records that the mother o f "Gillikrist… Harald" supported her son's claim to be the son of Kin g Magnus[381].]
[Mistress (6): ---.  Snorre names "Thora, a daughter of Saxe of Vik , a sister of Sigrid who was mother of King Olaf Magnsuson and of Kar e the king's brother who married Borghild, a daughter of Dag Eilifson " as the mother of "Sigurd Slembidjarn"[382].   Morkinskinna  record s that “Thora” daughter of “Saxi in Vik” was the mother of “Sigurdr… s lembidjá kn” who was “later alleged to be Magnus´ s son”[383].
King Magnus III had [two] illegitimate children by Mistress (1).
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORWAY.htm#SigurdIdied1130] 
OLAVSSON, Magnus III King of Norway (I47061)
 
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MANFREDO del Vasto, son of BONIFAZIO Marchese del Vasto & his [first w ife Alix de Savoie] -[4 Jun 1175/Mar 1176], bur Staffarda).    "Bonifa cius marchio filius Teutonis… marchio… cum Alice cometissa filia qd. d . Petri marchio atque Theotone, Petro, Magnifredo, Hugone et Willielm o filiis eorum" donated property to "monasterio sancti Petri… in… vill a Saviliani" by charter dated 21 Dec 1099[489].    "Bonifacius marchi o cum filiis suis Manfredo atque Ugone" donated property to "ecclesi e S. Donati de Monte" by charter dated 1121[490].  "Dominus Meyfredu s marchio de Vasto" donated revenue to the chapel of Staffarda by char ter dated 23 Aug 1122[491].  "Bonifacius marchio" appointed "filiis s uos Maginfredum et Wilielmum adque Ugonem necnon Anselmum… et Anricu m et Bonefacium minorem atque Odonem" as his heirs but disinherited "B onifacium… incixie nominatum" by charter dated 1125[492].  "Bonifatiu s marchio… Agnes comitissa uxor ipsius marchionis… filii eius Mainfred us et Ugo" donated "domum sancti Laurentii" to Lé rins by charter date d 1127[493].  "Marchiones Wiliemus et Manfredus filii marchionis Boni facii" promised not to construct castles in a certain location by char ter dated 1135[494].  "Marchiones filii domni Bonefatii… Manfredus, W ilielmus, Ugo, Anselmus, Enricus, Oddo Bouarius" donated property to t he monastery of Staffarda by charter dated 9 Dec 1138[495].  A charte r dated 1140 records the agreement between the people of Genoa and "ma rchiones filios Bonefacii… Manfredum et Hugonem et Anselmum et Henricu m et Ottonem", promising not to make war secretly with "Oberto comit e Vintimillii" with the permission of Genoa[496].   MANFREDO I Marches e di Saluzzo: a charter dated 22 Dec 1142 records the division of terr itories agreed between "Marchiones de Vasto… Mainfredum, Willielmum, H ugonem, Anselmum, Heinricum, Bonifacium et Oddonem filios quondam Boni facii marchionis", under which Manfredo took "marchionatus de Salutia" [497].  "Mainfredus marchio… cum fratribus meis" donated revenue fro m Ruffia and Orsarola to the monastery of Staffarda by charter dated 2 3 Feb 1143[498].    "Mainfredus marchio de Saluciis filius quondam dom ini Bonefacii marchionis de Vasto" donated property "in territorio… To rriana" to the monastery of Santa Maria di Staffarda by charter date d to 1148[499].    A charter dated 1155 records an agreement between t he consuls of Genoa and "Manfredo, Enrico… Ottoni Bouerio"[500].  "Wi llelmus marchio filius Bonefacii marchionis quondam bone memorie" dona ted property at Scarnafigi to the monastery of Staffarda by charter da ted to before 1156, witnessed by "Mainfredus marchio, Oto Bouerius mar chio…"[501].  "Manfredus marchio filius condam Bonefacii bone memori e marchionis" donated property "in domo… Casanova… in territorio de Ca rmagnola" to Staffarda by charter dated 8 May 1161[502].  "Mainfredu s marchio… cum filio suo Mainfredo" reached agreement with the abbot o f Fruttuaria by charter dated 4 Jun 1175, witnessed by "Enricus viceco mes…"[503].
m ELEONORA, daughter of ---.  A continuation of the Chronica Jacobi d e Aquis  names "Elionor figlola di Zudich, Conte de la Thorre Alborea … nipota del Re di Spagna" as the wife of "Manfredo", first son of "Bo nifazio"[504].
Marchese Manfredo [I] & his wife had three children.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MONFERRATO,%20SALUZZO,%20SAVONA.htm#M anfredoIVSaluzzodied1340] 
Manfredo I Marchese di Saluzzo (I5260)
 
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ROTROU "le Grand" du Perche, son of GEOFFROY [I] Comte de Mortagne, Co mte du Perche & his wife Bé atrix de Ramerupt [Roucy] -killed in batt le Rouen [20 Jan/23 Apr] or 6 May 1144).  He is named and his parent age given by Orderic Vitalis[3482].  "Beatrice  uxor mea et filio m eo Rotroco nec non fratribus meis" confirmed the confirmation of donat ions to St. Denis de Nogent by "Gaufridus castri Mauritaniæ comes" d ated [1080][3483].    The Genealogiæ   Scriptoris Fusniacensis  n ames "Rotaldum eiusdem loci comitem et Iulianam de Aquila matrem regin e Navarrensis, et Margaretam uxorem Gisleberti de Novo-burgo" as child ren, incorrectly, of "Rotaldo comiti de Pertica" & his wife Beatrix d e Roucy[3484].  He succeeded his father as Comte  du Perche.  H e accompanied Robert III Duke of Normandy on the First Crusade Sep 109 6[3485].    William of Tyre names Rotrou Comte de Perche among thos e who left on the First Crusade in 1096 with Robert Count of Flanders[ 3486].    "Rotrocus filius domini Gauffridi comitis Mauritaniensis " confirmed donations to St. Denis de Nogent by charter dated 1099 aft er returning from Jerusalem and visiting his father's tomb[3487].  H e fought for his first cousin Alfonso I "el Batallador" King of Arago n against the Moors in 1105 and 1114[3488].  He founded the abbey o f Tiron in 1109[3489].  In 1114, he assisted Henry I King of Englan d at the siege of Bellê me, which he had previously claimed by heredi tary right from his paternal grandmother and which the king granted t o him after its capture.  "Perticensis comes Rotrocus"  donated pro perty to the abbey of Sainte-Trinité de Tiron with the consent of "g enere mei Helie filiique mee Philippe" by charter dated [1120] witness ed by "Juliane soror mea"[3490].    "Comes Rotro" donated property t o the monastery of Subiano, confirmed by "Aldefonsus rex", by charte r dated Apr 1123[3491].    He returned to France after another exped ition in Spain in 1125[3492].  "Rotroldus comes Perticensis et domin us Belismensis, filius Gaufredi comitis Perticensis et comitissæ Bea tricis" confirmed the donation of the church of St. Lé onard de Bell ê me to Marmoutier by charter dated 1126[3493].  He supported Steph en King of England who gave him Moulin in 1135[3494].  Robert of Tor igny records the death in 1144 at the siege of Rouen of "comes Pertice nsis Rotrodus"[3495].  The necrology of St. Pè re-en-Vallé e recor ds the death "II Non Mai" of "Rotrocus comes Perticensis"[3496].
m firstly  ---.    The primary source which confirms her marriage h as not yet been identified.
m secondly  (1103) MATHILDE, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King o f England & his mistress Edith --- -drowned off Barfleur, Normandy 2 5 Nov 1120).  She is named as daughter of King Henry I by Orderic Vi talis, who specifies that the king "built up [her husband's] power b y greatly augmenting his estates and wealth in England"[3497].  Orde ric also specifies that the king arranged her marriage at the same tim e as that of her half-sister Juliane[3498].    The Genealogiæ   Sc riptoris Fusniacensis  refers to, but does not name, the wife of "Rot aldus comes" as "filiam regis Anglie", specifying that she had daughte rs[3499].  Her father gave her lands in Wiltshire as her dowry[3500] .  "Rotrocus comes et Beatrix mater eius atque Mathildis uxor comiti s" subscribed the charter dated to [1105/07] under which "Guillermus   de Loiscel" made donations to St. Denis de Nogent[3501].  The Con tinuator of Florence of Worcester names "… filia regis comitissa de P erceio…" among those drowned in the sinking of the White Ship[3502].   William of Malmesbury also records that she drowned following th e sinking of the “Blanche Nef [White Ship]”[3503].
m thirdly  (after [1120])  as her first husband, HAWISE de Salisbury , daughter of WALTER FitzEdward Earl of Salisbury & his wife Sibylle d e Chaources [Chaworth] -13 Jan before 1152).    William of Tyre refe rs to Rotrou's marriage with the sister of Earl Patrick after the marr iage of his daughter Philippa[3504].  Philippa’s marriage is dated t o [1120].  The chronology of Hawise’s children suggests their birth s after [1135/40] at the earliest.  If that is correct, Hawise woul d presumably have been an infant if she had married soon after [1120].   It appears more likely that the marriage took place in the early 1 130s, which would place Hawise’s birth in [1120], which would sugges t that she was one of her parents’ older children.  The Chronicle o f Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the first wife of "comitem de B rana Robertum domnum" as "matrem… comitis Rotroldi de Pertico, nata m de Salesberia"[3505].  Robert of Torigny records that "uxorem… su am [comitis Perticensis Rotrodi]" was later given by "Ludovicus rex Fr ancorum  [to] Roberto  fratri suo"[3506].  She married secondly [1 144/45]) as his first wife, Robert de France, who was later installe d as Seigneur de Dreux.  The necrology of Chartres cathedral record s the death "Id Jan" of "Amicia comitissa Perticensis mater Rotrodi mi litis"[3507], although if this entry correctly refers to Hawise it i s surprising that there is no reference which would indicate her secon d marriage.
Comte  Rotrou  & his first wife had one daughter. Comte  Rotrou   & his second wife had two daughters. Comte  Rotrou  & his third w ife had three children. Comte  Rotrou  had two illegitimate childre n by an unknown mistress or mistresses.
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMAN%20NOBILITY.htm#PhilippaMHelieA njouMaine] 
Rotrou I Comte du Perche Earl of Perch (I6378)
 
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SANCHO Garcí a de Navarra, son of GARCÍ A IV Sá nchez King of Navarr e & his wife Jimena Ferná ndez [990/92]-murdered Bureba 18 Oct 1035, b ur Monastery of San Salvador de Oñ a[343], transferred to Leó n, roya l pantheon of San Isidro[344]).  “… Ranimirus… regulus, Gundesalbo re gulus… Sancio regulus…” confirmed the charter dated 31 Dec [997] unde r which “Garsea Sancioni rex… cum coniux mea Eximina” donated propert y to the monastery of Leire[345].  TheHistoria  Silense  records tha t "Sancius filius eius" succeeded on the death of King Garcí a[346].   He succeeded his father in 999 as SANCHO  III "el Mayor"  King of N avarre, Conde de Aragó n, under the regency of --- until 1005.  The M uslim attacks against Navarre continued unabated, culminating in the c apture of Pamplona in 1000[347].  “Sancius… rex… cum coniuge mea regi na domina Maiora” donated property to the monastery of Leire by charte r dated 17 Apr 1014[348].  "Sancius rex… cum coniuge mea Mumadonna re gina" donated property to the monastery of San Millá n de la Cogolla b y charter dated 24 Jun 1014, signed by "… sennor Lope Sancii maiordomu s, sennor Lope Ennecones botilarius, sennor Garsea Lopez, sennor Ennec o Sanchiz Naialensis, sennor Fortun Sanchiz frater eius, sennor Eximin o Garceiz Osselensis, sennor Fortun Belasquiz Funensis"[349].  Cond e de Ribagorza [1018]: the end 13th century “Crò nica d´ Alaó Renovad a” records that, after the death of “Guillelmum Ysarni, quem genuera t Ysarnus prefatus ex concubina” (dated to 1018]), Ribagorza was inher ited by “rex Sancius...jure propinquitatis”, explained because “Majo r comitissa soror comitis Sancii de Castella” married “comitis Paliare nsis Raimundi Suniarii” and remained in Ribagorza after their marriag e was ended “consanguinitatis causa”, and because “rex Sancius Pampilo nensis” married “filiam predicti comitis Sancii de Castella...Majorem” [350].  "Sancius rex" confirmed a donation of property to the monaste ry of San Millá n de la Cogolla by his parents by charter dated 1020 , signed by "Momadonna regina, Garsea regulus, Ranimirus regulus proli s regis...Lope Sanchiz maiordomus, Lope Ennecones botellarius, senno r Enneco Sancii Naialensis et Muensis, sennor Fortun Belasquiz Funensi s"[351].  King Sancho III confirmed the donation of the monastery o f San Cristó bal de Tobia to San Millá n de la Cogolla by charter date d 1020, signed by "Momadonna regina cum filiis meis Garsea regulus, Ra nimirus frater eius, Ranimirus alius frater eius..."[352].  "Sanciu s rex et uxor mea Muma dompna regina" donated property to the monaster y of Yarte y Anoz by charter dated 17 May 1024, confirmed by "Garsia s regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Gunç alvus frater eius, Fredinandu s frater horum…"[353].  He claimed the county of Castile in his wife' s name after the murder of her brother conde Garcí a Sá nchez in 1029 , and incorporated the whole of Castile into his kingdom.  Taking adv antage of the weakness of the caliphate which followed the death of Ab d al-Malik, Sancho III led a rapid of expansion of the territory of Na varre to the west, capturing most of the kingdom of Leó n.  He force d the marriage of his son Fernando to Sancha de Leó n, sister of Vermu do III King of Leó n.  He captured the city of Leó n from Vermudo i n 1034 when he declared himself emperor of all the Hispano-Christian p rincipalities.  Strongly influenced by French monarchist theories an d feudal norms, he was the first monarch to adopt the French practic e of claiming to rule "by the grace of God", later adopted by the othe r Iberian monarchies, and introduced the term vassal into local usage[ 354].  His personal empire was short-lived as he decreed the divisio n of his territories between his sons after his death.  The Chronico n Burgense  records the death in 1035 of “Sancius Rex Abarca”[355].   The manuscript of the Codex  de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampi lonam" records the death in 1035 of "Sancius rex" and his burial "Oni e monasterio", although the passage is garbled as the earlier part o f the sentence records the succession in 970 of King Sancho II[356].
m (before 27 Jun 1011)  MUNIA  [Mayor]  de Castilla, daughter of SANCH O Garcí a Conde de Castilla & his wife Urraca Gó mez [990/95]-after 1 3 Jul 1066, bur Monastery of San Martí n de Fró mista).    The Cró nic a Latina  records that “la huerfana doñ a Mayor, hija del… conde Sanch o” married “al rey de Navarra y Ná jera Sancho, nieto de Sancho Abarca ”[357].    "Sancius rex… cum coniux mea Mumadonna regina" granted righ ts to the monastery of San Millá n de la Cogolla by charter dated 24 J un 1011, signed by "… Ranimirus regulus… senior Lope Sancii maiordomus , senior Lope Enneconis botilarius, senior Garsea Lopez, senior Ennec o Sanchez Naialensis, fratri eius senior Fortun Sanchez, senior Eximin o Garceiz Osselensis, senior Fortun Belaskis Funensis"[358].  "Sanciu s… rex" recommended the rule of St Benedict to the monastery of Leir e by charter dated 21 Oct 1022, subscribed by "Eximina regina mater re gis, Regina domna Muma, Garsia et Ranimirus, Gundesalbus et Fernandus" [359].  "Sancius rex et uxor mea Muma dompna regina" donated propert y to the monastery of Yarte y Anoz by charter dated 17 May 1024[360].   She succeeded her brother in 1029 as Condesa  de Castilla.  "Domn a Major regina" confirmed a charter of "Sancius Hispaniarum rex" date d 26 Jun 1033 which related to concessions to the monastery of Oriense [361].  "Sancius… rex… cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora" donate d the monastery of San Sebastian to the monastery of Leire by charte r dated 17 Apr 1014, redated to [1030][362].  She became a nun afte r her the death of her husband.  She founded the monastery of San Mar tí n de Fromista 13 Jul 1066, the document naming her father but not h er husband[363].  The testament of "Maior regina Christi ancilla", i n which she requests burial in the monastery of San Martí n de Fró mis ta, is dated 13 Jun 1066[364].
Mistress (1): SANCHA de Aibar, daughter of --- [995]-[27 Oct 1070/1076 ], bur Monastery of San Juan de la Peñ a).  TheGestis Comitum Barcino nensium  refers to the mother of "Raimirus filius Sancii Regis Navarro rum" as "nobilissima domina de castro… Ayunarum"[365].  Her name is c onfirmed by the charter dated 27 Oct 1070 under which "domina Sancia , mater Ranimiri regis" granted the monastery of Santa Cecilia de Aiba r "quam dedit michi illa regine domna Eximina mater Sancionis regis" t o "nepte mea domna Sancia", in the presence of "abbatissa domne Mennos e soror episcopi domni Sancii Aragonensium"[366].  Señ ora de Miranda , and of the monastery of Santa Cecilia de Aibar[367].
King Sancho III & his wife had [seven] children:
[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NAVARRE.htm#SanchoIIIdied1035B] 
GARCÍA, Sáncho III King of Castille Navarre and A (I5509)
 

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